Beneficial effects of raxofelast (IRFI 016), a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant, in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. (1/1327)

1. Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidant that results from reaction between NO and superoxide. It has been recently proposed that peroxynitrite plays a pathogenetic role in inflammatory processes. Here we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of raxofelast, a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant agent, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. 2. In vivo treatment with raxofelast (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally 5 min before carrageenan) prevented in a dose dependent manner carrageenan-induced pleural exudation and polymorphonuclear migration in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as histological organ injury were significantly reduced by raxofelast. 3. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine, a footprint of peroxynitrite, revealed a positive staining in lungs from carrageenan-treated rats. No positive nitrotyrosine staining was found in the lungs of the carrageenan-treated rats, which received raxofelast (20 mg kg 1) treatment. 4. Furthermore, in vivo raxofelast (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1)) treatment significantly reduced peroxynitrite formation as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123, prevented the appearance of DNA damage, the decrease in mitochondrial respiration and partially restored the cellular level of NAD+ in ex vivo macrophages harvested from the pleural cavity of rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. 5. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that raxofelast, a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant agent, exerts multiple protective effects in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation.  (+info)

Phase I study of Carzelesin (U-80,244) given (4-weekly) by intravenous bolus schedule. (2/1327)

Carzelesin is a cyclopropylpyrroloindole analogue which acts as a DNA-sequence-specific alkylating agent. In this phase I study, Carzelesin was given as a 4-weekly 10 min i.v. infusion to 51 patients with advanced solid tumours. Patients received a median of two courses (range 1-5) at one of nine dose levels: 24, 48, 96, 130, 150, 170, 210, 250 and 300 microg m(-2). According to NCI-CTC criteria, non-haematological toxicities (grade 1/2) included fever, nausea and vomiting, mucositis and anorexia, none of which was clearly dose related. The dose-limiting toxicity was haematological and consisted mainly of neutropenia and to a lesser extent thrombocytopenia. From the dose level 150 microg m(-2), the haematological toxicity (particularly thrombocytopenia) was delayed in onset, prolonged and cumulative in some patients. In several courses, double WBC nadirs occurred. The maximum tolerated dose for a single course was 300 microg m(-2). From the dose level 170 microg m(-2), the intended dose intensity could not be delivered to most patients receiving > 2 courses owing to cumulative haematological toxicity. The dose level with the best dose intensity for multiple courses was 150 microg m(-2). The pharmacokinetics of Carzelesin and its metabolites (U-76,073; U-76,074) have been established in 31 patients during the first course of treatment using a HPLC method. Carzelesin exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. The concentration of U-76,074 (active metabolite) extended above the lower limit of quantitation (1 ng ml(-1)) for short periods of time and only at the higher dose levels. There was no relationship between neutropenia and the AUC of the prodrug Carzelesin, but the presence of detectable plasma levels of the active metabolite U-76,074 was usually associated with a substantial decrease in ANC values.  (+info)

Identification of SK-951, a novel benzofuran derivative, as an agonist to 5-HT4 receptors. (3/1327)

The pharmacological profile of SK-951 ((-)4-amino-N-[2-(1-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-5-yl) ethyl]-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-methylbenzo[b]furan-7-carboxamide hemifumarate) was identified in relation to serotonin 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors by the receptor binding assay and functional studies. The receptor binding assay showed that SK-951 bound to the 5-HT3 receptor with a high affinity, to the 5-HT4 receptor with relatively higher affinity and to the muscarinic M2 receptor with a low affinity, but not to dopamine D1 and D2 and serotonin 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 and muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors. SK-951 caused relaxations of tunica muscularis mucosae preparations from rat esophagus which were precontracted with carbachol, and the effects were antagonized by GR113808, a selective 5-HT4 antagonist. In the longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations from guinea pig ileum, SK-951 enhanced the electrically-stimulated contraction of preparations in which the 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors were blocked, and it enhanced the electrically-stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine (ACh). These effects of SK-951 were antagonized by GR113808. SK-951 inhibited the 5-HT3 receptor-mediated contractions. These results indicate that SK-951 possesses properties of an agonist for the 5-HT4 receptor and an antagonist for the 5-HT3 receptor. Thus, SK-951 is a new and potent 5-HT4-receptor agonist and causes contractions of guinea pig ileum mediated by enhancement of ACh release via the 5-HT4 receptor.  (+info)

Selective stimulation of colonic transit by the benzofuran 5HT4 agonist, prucalopride, in healthy humans. (4/1327)

BACKGROUND: Prucalopride (R093877) is a selective and specific 5HT4 agonist, the first of a new chemical class of benzofurans, with gastrointestinal prokinetic activities in vitro. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of prucalopride on gastrointestinal and colonic transit. METHODS: A validated scintigraphic technique was used to measure gastrointestinal and colonic transit over 48 hours in 50 healthy volunteers. For seven days, each subject received a daily dose of 0. 5, 1, 2, or 4 mg prucalopride, or placebo in a double blind, randomised fashion. The transit test was performed over the last 48 hours. RESULTS: There were significant accelerations of overall colonic transit at 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours (p<0.05) and proximal colonic emptying t1/2 (p<0.05). The 0.5, 2, and 4 mg doses of prucalopride were almost equally effective and accelerated colonic transit compared with placebo. Prucalopride did not significantly alter gastric emptying (p>0.5) or small bowel transit (overall p=0. 12). The medication appeared to be well tolerated during the seven day treatment of healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Prucalopride accelerates colonic transit, partly by stimulating proximal colonic emptying, but does not alter gastric or small bowel transit in healthy human subjects. Prucalopride deserves further study in patients with constipation.  (+info)

Simultaneous SPECT studies of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine binding sites in baboons. (5/1327)

The central nervous system dopamine transporters (DATs) and dopamine D2/D3 receptors are implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment. With the successful development of [99mTc]TRODAT-1, single-isotope imaging studies using this ligand for DAT imaging can be complemented by additional use of 123I-labeled D2/D3 receptor ligand co-injected to assess both pre- and postsynaptic sites of the dopaminergic system simultaneously. METHODS: Twelve SPECT scans of the brain were obtained in two baboons after intravenous administration of 740 MBq (20 mCi) [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 (technetium, [2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]oct-2-yl]methyl ](2-mercaptoethyl) amino]ethyl]-amino]ethanethiolato (3-)]- oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]) and 185 MBq (5 mCi) [123I]iodobenzamide or [123I]iodobenzofuran. SPECT data were acquired by a triple-head gamma camera equipped with ultra-high-resolution fanbeam collimators (scan duration = 210 min). Two sets of SPECT data were obtained using energy windows of 15% centered on 140 keV for 99mTc and 10% asymmetric with a lower bound at 159 keV for 123I. After coregistration with MRI, region-of-interest analysis was performed using predefined templates from coregistered MRI. In blocking studies, baboons were pretreated with N-methyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT, 14 mg) or raclopride (14 mg) to block DAT or D2/D3 binding site, respectively. RESULTS: Image quality of dual-isotope studies was similar to that obtained from single-isotope studies. When one site was blocked with CFT or raclopride, the binding of the respective ligand to the other site was not affected. CONCLUSION: This is the first example that clearly demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic sites of the dopaminergic system in baboons with dual-isotope SPECT studies. With or without corrections for cross-contamination of 123I into the 99mTc window, striatum-to-cerebellum ratios (target-to-nontarget) of dual-isotope experiments did not differ significantly from single-isotope experiments. This method may be a valuable and cost-effective tool for gaining comprehensive information about the dopaminergic system in one SPECT imaging session.  (+info)

Affinity isolation of imidazoline binding proteins from rat brain using 5-amino-efaroxan as a ligand. (6/1327)

We have employed an amino derivative of the imidazoline ligand, efaroxan, to isolate imidazoline binding proteins from solubilised extracts of rat brain, by affinity chromatography. A number of proteins were specifically retained on the affinity column and one of these was immunoreactive with an antiserum raised against the ion conducting pore component of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Patch clamp experiments confirmed that, like its parent compound, amino-efaroxan blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human pancreatic beta-cells and can stimulate the insulin secretion from these cells. The results reveal that a member of the ion conducting pore component family is strongly associated with imidazoline binding proteins in brain and in the endocrine pancreas.  (+info)

Reactivity of Cl-P(+)-Cl toward cyclic organic ethers. (7/1327)

The dichlorophosphenium ion (Cl-P(+)-Cl) undergoes a variety of reactions with cyclic organic ethers in the gas phase in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Most of the reactions are initiated by Cl-P(+)-Cl-induced heterolytic C-O bond cleavage. However, the observed final products depend on the exact structure of the ether. For saturated ethers, e.g., tetrahydropyran, tetrahydrofuran, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, the most abundant ionic product corresponds to hydroxide abstraction by Cl-P(+)-Cl. This unexpected reaction is rationalized by a multistep mechanism that involves an initial heterolytic C-O bond cleavage accompanied by a 1,2-hydride shift, and that ultimately yields a resonance-stabilized allyl cation and HOPCl2. The process is estimated to be highly exothermic (AM1 calculations yield delta H = -(33-38) kcal mol(-1) for the ethers mentioned above). However, the adducts formed from most of the unsaturated ethers are unable to undergo hydride shifts and hence cannot react via this pathway. In some of these cases, e.g., for 2,5-dihydrofuran and 2,5-dihydro-3,4-benzofuran, the C-O bond heterolysis is followed by oxygen/chlorine exchange to yield the O=PCl radical and a resonance-stabilized carbocation (AM1 calculations yield delta H = -14 kcal mol(-1) for the reaction of 2,5-dihydro-3,4-benzofuran). Hydride abstraction by Cl-P(+)-Cl also yields an abundant product for these two ethers. On the other hand, the ethers with low ionization energies, such as 2,3-dihydrofuran and 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, react with Cl-P(+)-Cl by electron transfer. Finally, a unique pathway, addition followed by elimination of HCl, dominates the reaction with furan. The observed reactions are rationalized by thermochemical data obtained from semiempirical molecular orbital calculations.  (+info)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (8/1327)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) (10 ppm each) from soil microcosms to final concentrations in the parts-per-billion range was affected by the addition of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Rates and extents of removal were influenced by the density of RW1 organisms. For 2-CDD, the rate of removal was dependent on the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with half-life values ranging from 5.8 h (0% SOM) to 26.3 h (5.5% SOM).  (+info)