The role of endogenous gastrin in the development of enterochromaffin-like cell carcinoid tumors in Mastomys natalensis: a study with the specific gastrin receptor antagonist AG-041R. (9/379)

We examined the effects of a newly synthesized gastrin receptor antagonist, AG-041R, on the growth of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) carcinoid tumors in Mastomys natalensis both in vitro and in vivo. AG-041R was as potent as the well known gastrin antagonist L365,260 in inhibiting not only the gastrin-induced release of histamine from but also histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene expression in the ECL carcinoid tumor cells. AG-041R also inhibited gastrin-induced DNA synthesis and c-fos gene expression in the tumor cells. Furthermore, AG-041R significantly inhibited the growth of the transplanted Mastomys ECL carcinoid tumors in vivo. From these data, it is concluded that endogenous gastrin is involved in the growth of ECL carcinoid tumors in Mastomys natalensis. Moreover, AG-041R is shown to have a potential as an anti-neoplastic agent for ECL carcinoid tumor of the stomach.  (+info)

Small synthetic ligands of the cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor can mimic the function of endogenous peptide hormones. (10/379)

The gastric cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor (CCK-BR) is a key regulator of enterochromaffin-like cell function and proliferation. Over the last decade, a number of small non-peptide CCK-BR "antagonists" have been discovered. Here, we demonstrate that some of these non-peptide ligands in fact possess significant ability to activate the human CCK-BR, and are, therefore, more properly categorized as partial agonists. When tested in COS-7 cells transiently expressing the recombinant human CCK-BR, saturating concentrations of the small "peptoid" ligands PD 135,158 and PD 136,450 stimulated inositol phosphate formation to 23 and 43 percent, respectively, of the maximum response induced by a considerably larger endogenous peptide agonist, cholecystokinin octapeptide. In contrast, the benzodiazepine-derived CCK-BR ligand, YM022, acted as a "true" high-affinity antagonist of cholecystokinin-induced inositol phosphate formation (pA2 = 9.69). Consistent with recent findings in animal experiments, our data reveal that small synthetic ligands have the potential to function as either CCK-BR agonists or antagonists. These dual properties of synthetic molecules must be considered when evaluating candidate drugs for human disease.  (+info)

Antiarrhythmic efficacy of selective blockade of the cardiac slowly activating delayed rectifier current, I(Ks), in canine models of malignant ischemic ventricular arrhythmia. (11/379)

BACKGROUND: To date, the lack of potent and selective inhibitors has hampered the physiological assessment of modulation of the cardiac slowly activating delayed rectifier current, I(Ks). The present study, using the I(Ks) blocker L-768,673, represents the first in vivo assessment of the cardiac electrophysiological and antiarrhythmic effects of selective I(Ks) blockade. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an anesthetized canine model of recent (8.5+/-0.4 days) anterior myocardial infarction, 0.003 to 0.03 mg/kg L-768,673 IV significantly suppressed electrically induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias and reduced the incidence of lethal arrhythmias precipitated by acute, thrombotically induced posterolateral myocardial ischemia. Antiarrhythmic protection afforded by L-768,673 was accompanied by modest 7% to 10% increases in noninfarct zone ventricular effective refractory period, 3% to 5% increases in infarct zone ventricular effective refractory period, and 4% to 6% increases in QTc interval. In a conscious canine model of healed (3 to 4 weeks) anterior myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation was provoked by transient occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery during submaximal exercise. Pretreatment with 0.03 mg/kg L-768,673 IV elicited a modest 7% increase in QTc, prevented ventricular fibrillation in 5 of 6 animals, and suppressed arrhythmias in 2 additional animals. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that selective blockade of I(Ks) may be a potentially useful intervention for the prevention of malignant ischemic ventricular arrhythmias.  (+info)

Effects of spinal cholecystokinin receptor antagonists on morphine antinociception in a model of visceral pain in the rat. (12/379)

The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of spinal cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists on morphine antinociception in a model of visceral nociception, colorectal distension, in rats with chronic colonic inflammation and vehicle-treated controls. Three to five days after intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), an enhanced visceromotor response to all pressures of colorectal distension (10-80 mm Hg) was evident. The ED(50) of intrathecal morphine (0.93 microgram) in vehicle-treated rats produced significantly greater antinociception in TNBS-treated rats. Intrathecal proglumide, a nonselective CCK receptor antagonist, dose dependently enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine in vehicle-treated rats, but not in TNBS-treated rats. Similarly, L-365, 260, a specific CCK(B) receptor antagonist, dose dependently increased morphine's antinociceptive effects in vehicle-treated rats but had no effect in rats with TNBS-induced colonic inflammation. L-364,718, a specific CCK(A) receptor antagonist, had no effect on morphine antinociception in either vehicle-treated or TNBS-treated rats. These data indicate that CCK, acting at the CCK(B) receptor, is involved in modulating morphine antinociception following a noxious visceral stimulus. However, CCK receptor antagonists no longer enhance morphine antinociception after instillation of intracolonic TNBS, suggesting that visceral inflammation may lead to a reduction in spinal CCK release.  (+info)

Regulation of inducible cAMP early repressor expression by gastrin and cholecystokinin in the pancreatic cell line AR42J. (13/379)

The CREM gene encodes both activators and repressors of cAMP-induced transcription. Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) isoforms are generated upon activation of an alternative, intronic promoter within the CREM gene. ICER is proposed to down-regulate both its own expression and the expression of other genes that contain cAMP-responsive elements such as a number of growth factors. Thus, ICER has been postulated to play a role in proliferation and differentiation. Here we show that ICER gene expression is induced by gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and epidermal growth factor in AR42J cells. The time course of gastrin- and CCK-mediated ICER induction is rapid and transient, similar to forskolin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced ICER expression. The specific CCK-B receptor antagonist L740,093 blocks the gastrin but not the CCK response, indicating that both the CCK-B and the CCK-A receptor can mediate ICER gene activation. Noteworthy, CREB is constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-133 in AR42J cells, and ICER induction proceeds in the absence of increased CREB Ser(P)-133. Gastrin-mediated ICER induction was not reduced in the presence of the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89, indicating a protein kinase A-independent mechanism. This is the first report on ICER inducibility via G(q)/G(11) protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in food-deprived rats by a CCK-A receptor antagonist. (14/379)

The circadian activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by caloric flow in rats. During the dark cycle, it has been shown that, in fasted rats, the time-course profile of plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone parallels the profile of food intake in ad libitum fed animals. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is involved in regulating food intake in rodents. CCK-8 reduces food intake by acting on CCK-A receptors subtype. This work aims at establishing an eventual relationship between the modulatory role of CCK on food intake and its effect on HPA axis activity during fasting. We studied the effect of CCK-A and CCK-B receptor antagonists on food intake during the first period of the dark cycle. Under these conditions we observed that the CCK-A receptor antagonist, SR-27897 (0.3 mg kg(-1)), but not the CCK-B receptor antagonist, L-365260 (1 mg kg(-1)), increases food-intake. In a second series of experiments we observed that the increase of both ACTH and corticosterone plasma level elicited by fasting, was prevented by SR-27897, but not by L-365260. These results indicate that CCK-A receptor blockade during fasting prevents the activation of the HPA axis.  (+info)

Role of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on secretion of surfactant in guinea pig alveolar type II cells. (15/379)

Granular type II cells located in the alveolar epithelium synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant and have specialized ion transport system. Alveolar type II cells are stimulated to secrete pulmonary surfactant by a variety of agonists. One mechanism by which extracellular signals are perceived by cells is the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are present in both peripheral tissues and central nervous system. We have previously reported the presence of high density PBRs in lung and alveolar type II cells. It is known that both PBRs and beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) play an important role in cellular Ca2+ transport. Furthermore, we have suggested earlier that PBRs are someway functionally associated with the beta-ARs. The objective of the present study was to determine whether PBRs play any role in the secretion of surfactant by alveolar type II cells. Alveolar type II cells were isolated from normal weanling guinea pigs by panning method and incubated with 3H-palmitic acid in minimum essential medium to synthesize labelled dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC). After washing, the cells were treated at 37 degrees C for one hour with 10 microM isoproterenol (IP) in the presence and absence of 10 microM Ro 5-4864, an agonist for PBRs. After one hour, the release of labelled DPPC in the medium was analyzed. The control cells released DPPC without any addition of a ligand. However, the treatment of cells with IP, Ro 5-4864 and IP + Ro 5-4864 caused 24, 52 and 17]% increase in the secretion of DPPC, respectively. In another experiment, type II cells were loaded with Fura-2 dye and treated with either IP or epineprine or Ro 5-4864. Both isoproterenol and epinephrine caused a significant increase in the level of cytosolic free Ca2+. However, Ro 5-4864 caused not only a decrease in the level of cytosolic free Ca2+ but also counteracted the stimulatory effect of IP. This may suggest that while ligands for ARs stimulate Ca2+ release into cytosol, the ligand for PBRs stimulates efflux of Ca2+ in alveolar type cells. Thus, the increased secretion of surfactant by the ligand of PBRs in alveolar type II cells may be mediated through its effects on increased Ca2+ efflux.  (+info)

Diazepam-binding inhibitor-derived peptides induce intracellular calcium changes and modulate human neutrophil function. (16/379)

We studied the effects of two diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)-derived peptides, triakontatetraneuropeptide (DBI 17-50, TTN) and eiksoneuropeptide (DBI 51-70, ENP), on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), chemotaxis, superoxide anion (O2-) generation, and phagocytosis in human neutrophils. Both TTN and ENP induced a rapid and transient rise of [Ca2+]i. The effect of TTN depended on the presence of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the effect of ENP also persisted after extracellular Ca2+ chelation. TTN induced neutrophil chemotaxis, stimulated O2- generation, and enhanced phagocytosis. ENP did not affect cell migration and oxidative metabolism but enhanced phagocytosis. Both peptides modulated N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine- and phorbol myristate acetate-induced O2- generation. Because neutrophils express benzodiazepine receptors of the peripheral type (pBRs) and DBI-derived peptides may interact with such receptors, we investigated the possible role of pBRs in TTN- or ENP-induced effects. The synthetic pBR ligand RO 5-4864 increased [Ca2+]i through extracellular Ca2+ influx and this effect was prevented by the pBR antagonist PK-11195. RO 5-4864, however, was ineffective on neutrophil migration and O2- generation and only slightly affected phagocytosis. Moreover, PK-11195 delayed the [Ca2+]i rise induced by TTN but did not significantly affect its extent, and had no effect on the [Ca2+]i rise induced by ENP. We conclude that DBI-derived peptides induce [Ca2+]i changes and modulate neutrophil function mainly through pBR-independent pathways. In view of the wide cell and tissue distribution of DBI in the brain and in peripheral organs, modulation of neutrophil function by DBI-derived peptides may be relevant for both the neuroimmune network and the development and regulation of the inflammatory processes.  (+info)