Benzodiazepine binding to mitochondrial membranes of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (65/379)

Benzodiazepine binding sites were studied in mitochondria of unicellular eukaryotes, the amoeba Acathamoeba castellanii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also in rat liver mitochondria as a control. For that purpose we applied Ro5-4864, a well-known ligand of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) present in mammalian mitochondria. The levels of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding, the dissociation constant (K(D)) and the number of [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites (B(max)) determined for fractions of the studied mitochondria indicate the presence of specific [(3)H]Ro5-4864 binding sites in the outer membrane of yeast and amoeba mitochondria as well as in yeast mitoplasts. Thus, A. castellanii and S. cerevisiae mitochondria, like rat liver mitochondria, contain proteins able to bind specifically [(3)H]Ro5-4864. Labeling of amoeba, yeast and rat liver mitochondria with [(3)H]Ro5-4864 revealed proteins identified as the voltage dependent anion selective channel (VDAC) in the outer membrane and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in the inner membrane. Therefore, the specific MBR ligand binding is not confined only to mammalian mitochondria and is more widespread within the eukaryotic world. However, it can not be excluded that MBR ligand binding sites are exploited efficiently only by higher multicellular eukaryotes. Nevertheless, the MBR ligand binding sites in mitochondria of lower eukaryotes can be applied as useful models in studies on mammalian MBR.  (+info)

Cholecystokinin in the rostral ventromedial medulla mediates opioid-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance. (66/379)

Opioid-induced hyperalgesia is characterized by hypersensitivity to innocuous or noxious stimuli during sustained opiate administration. Microinjection of lidocaine into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) lesion, abolishes opioid-induced hyperalgesia, suggesting the importance of descending pain facilitation mechanisms. Here, we investigate the possibility that cholecystokinin (CCK), a pronociceptive peptide, may drive such descending facilitation from the RVM during continuous opioid administration. In opioid-naive rats, CCK in the RVM produced acute tactile and thermal hypersensitivity that was antagonized by the CCK2 receptor antagonist L365,260 or by DLF lesion. CCK in the RVM also acutely displaced the spinal morphine antinociceptive dose-response curve to the right. Continuous systemic morphine elicited sustained tactile and thermal hypersensitivity within 3 d. Such hypersensitivity was reversed in a time-dependent manner by L365,260 in the RVM, and blockade of CCK2 receptors in the RVM also blocked the rightward displacement of the spinal morphine antinociceptive dose-response curve. Microdialysis studies in rats receiving continuous morphine showed an approximately fivefold increase in the basal levels of CCK in the RVM when compared with controls. These data suggest that activation of CCK2 receptors in the RVM promotes mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity and antinociceptive tolerance to morphine. Enhanced, endogenous CCK activity in the RVM during sustained morphine exposure may diminish spinal morphine antinociceptive potency by activating descending pain facilitatory mechanisms to exacerbate spinal nociceptive sensitivity. Prevention of opioid-dose escalation in chronic pain states by CCK receptor antagonism represents a potentially important strategy to limit unintended enhanced clinical pain and analgesic tolerance  (+info)

Cross-interactions of two p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors and two cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists with the CCK1 receptor and p38 MAP kinase. (67/379)

Although SB202190 and SB203580 are described as specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, several reports have indicated that other enzymes are also sensitive to SB203580. Using a pharmacological approach, we report for the first time that compounds SB202190 and SB203580 were able to directly and selectively interact with a G-protein-coupled receptor, namely the cholecystokinin receptor subtype CCK1, but not with the CCK2 receptor. We demonstrated that these compounds were non-competitive antagonists of the CCK1 receptor at concentrations typically used to inhibit protein kinases. By chimeric construction of the CCK2 receptor, we determined the involvement of two CCK1 receptor intracellular loops in the binding of SB202190 and SB203580. We also showed that two CCK antagonists, L364,718 and L365,260, were able to regulate p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. Using a reporter gene strategy and immunoblotting experiments, we demonstrated that both CCK antagonists inhibited selectively the enzymatic activity of p38 MAP kinase. Kinase assays suggested that this inhibition resulted from a direct interaction with both CCK antagonists. Molecular modeling simulations suggested that this interaction occurs in the ATP binding pocket of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that SB202190 and SB203580 bind to the CCK1 receptor and, as such, these compounds should be used with caution in models that express this receptor. We also found that L364,718 and L365,260, two CCK receptor antagonists, directly interacted with p38 MAP kinase and inhibited its activity. These findings suggest that the CCK1 receptor shares structural analogies with the p38 MAP kinase ATP binding site. They open the way to potential design of either a new family of MAP kinase inhibitors from CCK1 receptor ligand structures or new CCK1 receptor ligands based on p38 MAP kinase inhibitor structures.  (+info)

The XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease and homologous recombination contribute to the repair of minor groove DNA interstrand crosslinks in mammalian cells produced by the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine dimer SJG-136. (68/379)

SJG-136, a pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, is a highly efficient interstrand crosslinking agent that reacts with guanine bases in a 5'-GATC-3' sequence in the DNA minor groove. SJG-136 crosslinks form rapidly and persist compared to those produced by conventional crosslinking agents such as nitrogen mustard, melphalan or cisplatin which bind in the DNA major groove. A panel of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with defined defects in specific DNA repair pathways were exposed to the bi-functional agents SJG-136 and melphalan, and to their mono-functional analogues mmy-SJG and mono-functional melphalan. SJG-136 was >100 times more cytotoxic than melphalan, and the bi-functional agents were much more cytotoxic than their respective mono-functional analogues. Cellular sensitivity of both SJG-136 and melphalan was dependent on the XPF-ERCC1 heterodimer, and homologous recombination repair factors XRCC2 and XRCC3. The relative level of sensitivity of these repair mutant cell lines to SJG-136 was, however, significantly less than with major groove crosslinking agents. In contrast to melphalan, there was no clear correlation between sensitivity to SJG-136 and crosslink unhooking capacity measured using a modified comet assay. Furthermore, repair of SJG-136 crosslinks did not involve the formation of DNA double-strand breaks. SJG-136 cytotoxicity is likely to result from the poor recognition of DNA damage by repair proteins resulting in the slow repair of both mono-adducts and more importantly crosslinks in the minor groove.  (+info)

Selective labelling of diazepam-insensitive GABAA receptors in vivo using [3H]Ro 15-4513. (69/379)

Classical benzodiazepines (BZs), such as diazepam, bind to GABAA receptors containing alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 or alpha5 subunits that are therefore described as diazepam-sensitive (DS) receptors. However, the corresponding binding site of GABAA receptors containing either an alpha4 or alpha6 subunit do not bind the classical BZs and are therefore diazepam-insensitive (DIS) receptors; a difference attributable to a single amino acid (histidine in alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 and alpha5 subunits and arginine in alpha4 and alpha6). Unlike classical BZs, the imidazobenzodiazepines Ro 15-4513 and bretazenil bind to both DS and DIS populations of GABAA receptors. In the present study, an in vivo assay was developed using lorazepam to fully occupy DS receptors such that [3H]Ro 15-4513 was then only able to bind to DIS receptors. When dosed i.v., [3H]Ro 15-4513 rapidly entered and was cleared from the brain, with approximately 70% of brain radioactivity being membrane-bound. Essentially all membrane binding to DS+DIS receptors could be displaced by unlabelled Ro 15-4513 or bretazenil, with respective ID50 values of 0.35 and 1.2 mg kg(-1). A dose of 30 mg kg(-1) lorazepam was used to block all DS receptors in a [3H]Ro 15-1788 in vivo binding assay. When predosed in a [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding assay, lorazepam blocked [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding to DS receptors, with the remaining binding to DIS receptors accounting for 5 and 23% of the total (DS plus DIS) receptors in the forebrain and cerebellum, respectively. The in vivo binding of [3H]Ro 15-4513 to DIS receptors in the presence of lorazepam was confirmed using alpha1H101R knock-in mice, in which alpha1-containing GABAA receptors are rendered diazepam insensitive by mutation of the histidine that confers diazepam sensitivity to arginine. In these mice, and in the presence of lorazepam, there was an increase of in vivo [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding in the forebrain and cerebellum from 4 and 15% to 36 and 59% of the total (i.e. DS plus DIS) [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding observed in the absence of lorazepam.  (+info)

Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor: characterization in human T-lymphoma Jurkat cells. (70/379)

Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has been considered a promising drug target for cancer therapy, and several ligands have been developed for this purpose. Human T-lymphoma Jurkat cells have been considered as lacking PBR and are often used as negative control to prove the specificity of PBR ligands effects. It is surprising that we evidenced PBR protein expression in this cell line by means of Western blotting and immunocytochemistry assays using specific anti-PBR antibodies. PBR intracellular localization was evidenced in mitochondria and nuclei, as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy. The binding of the [(3)H]4'-chloro derivative of diazepam [(3)H]7-chloro-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (Ro5-4864) and the isoquinoline carboxamide derivative [(3)H]1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3 isoquinolinecarboxamide (PK11195) evidenced a single class of binding sites with an unusual affinity constant (K(d)) of 1.77 +/- 0.30 and 2.20 +/- 0.20 microM, respectively. The pharmacological profile of the classic ligands showed that PK11195 was the most potent inhibitor in the radioligand binding assays followed by Ro5-4864 and diazepam, whereas clonazepam, a specific ligand for the central-type receptor, showed a K(i) >1.0 x 10(-4) M. By a combined strategy of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot experiments, we succeeded in isolating and cloning the full-length Jurkat PBR cDNA, called JuPBR. The JuPBR gene showed two single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in the two substitutions, Ala147 --> threonine and His162 --> arginine, of PBR amino acidic sequence. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated PBR expression in Jurkat cells: the protein bound classic PBR ligands with micromolar affinity constants and presented a modified amino acidic sequence consequent to the detection of two gene polymorphisms.  (+info)

QT prolongation modifies dynamic restitution and hysteresis of the beat-to-beat QT-TQ interval relationship during normal sinus rhythm under varying states of repolarization. (71/379)

The analysis of cardiac electrical restitution (the relationship between an action potential duration and its preceding diastolic interval) has been used to predict arrhythmia liability. However, the procedure to measure restitution is invasive and disrupts normal physiological autonomic balance. Dynamic analysis of sequential beat-to-beat ECG data was used to study restitution under normal sinus rhythm and to quantify changes in temporal hysteresis with heart rate acceleration/deceleration during QT prolongation. Congenital long QT (LQT) 1 and LQT2 syndromes during sympathetic stimulation were modeled because of their association with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Temporal heterogeneity and hysteresis of restitution were examined in the conscious dog under varying conditions of delayed repolarization using either the selective inhibitors of the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (R)-2-(4-trifluoromethyl)-N-[2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-2,3-dihydro- 1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-3-yl]acetamide (L-768,673); the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (1-[2-(6-methyl-2-pyridyl)ethyl]-4-methyl-sulfonylaminobenzoyl)-piperidine (E-4031); or a combination of both at rest and during heart rate acceleration with sympathetic stimulation using isoproterenol challenges. Impaired repolarization with the combination of E-4031 and L-768,673 increased heterogeneity of restitution at rest 55 to 91%, increased hysteresis during heart rate acceleration after isoproterenol challenge by approximately 40 to 60%, and dramatically reduced the minimum TQ interval by 72% to only 28 ms. Impaired repolarization alters restitution during normal sinus rhythm and increases hysteresis/heterogeneity during heart rate acceleration following sympathetic stimulation. Thus, dynamic beat-to-beat measurements of restitution could lead to clinically applicable ECG obtained biomarkers for assessment of changes associated with arrhythmogenic risk.  (+info)

Differential behavioral effects of low efficacy positive GABAA modulators in combination with benzodiazepines and a neuroactive steroid in rhesus monkeys. (72/379)

In the clinic, low efficacy positive GABAA modulators might be preferred to high efficacy positive modulators insofar as low efficacy modulators might have comparatively less abuse and dependence liability. Drug discrimination was used to examine the behavioral effects of L-838,417 and bretazenil, two low efficacy positive GABAA modulators that act at benzodiazepine sites, alone and in combination with benzodiazepines and a neuroactive steroid (alfaxolone). In rhesus monkeys (n = 5) discriminating midazolam, alfaxolone substituted for midazolam. In four monkeys, L-838,417 and bretazenil did not substitute for, but rather dose-dependently antagonized, midazolam; L-838-417 and bretazenil, as well as flumazenil, enhanced the midazolam-like effects of alfaxolone. L-838,417 and bretazenil substituted for midazolam in a fifth monkey. In a separate group of rhesus monkeys (n = 3) that received 5.6 mg kg(-1) per day of diazepam and that discriminated flumazenil, L-838,417 and bretazenil substituted for flumazenil. These results demonstrate that L-838,417, bretazenil, and flumazenil can have agonist or antagonist actions in the same animal depending upon whether they are studied in combination with a higher efficacy positive GABAA modulator acting at the same (benzodiazepine) or a different (neuroactive steroid) site. Thus, combinations of low efficacy positive modulators acting at different sites on the GABAA receptor complex could yield drug mixtures with significant therapeutic effects and with reduced abuse and dependence liability, as compared to higher efficacy positive modulators such as currently available benzodiazepines.  (+info)