Combined dose-ratio analysis of cholecystokinin receptor antagonists, devazepide, lorglumide and loxiglumide in the guinea-pig gall bladder. (57/379)

1. Interactions between cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) and CCKA-receptor antagonists derived from benzodiazepines (devazepide) and glutamic acid (lorglumide and loxiglumide) have been examined in an improved bioassay using the guinea-pig, isolated, gall bladder preparation. 2. The presence of CCKB-receptors in the assay was provisionally-ruled out on the basis of the low potency of pentagastrin in the assay. By applying analyses of both agonism and antagonism, pentagastrin was shown to behave as a partial agonist at the CCKA-receptor. 3. Devazepide, lorglumide and loxiglumide behaved as simple competitive antagonists of CCKA-receptors and pKB values of 9.98, 7.59 and 7.07 were estimated, respectively. 4. Application of a combined dose-ratio analysis to the interactions between CCK-8 and combinations of devazepide/lorglumide and devazepide/loxiglumide indicated that these molecules behave as syntopic, competitive, antagonists at the CCKA-receptor. 5. We conclude that the guinea-pig gall bladder assay contains a homogeneous population of CCKA-receptors and offer an explanation for the differences between our results and those obtained recently by Maubach et al. (1991) which were taken as preliminary evidence for CCKA-receptor heterogeneity.  (+info)

Therapeutic effects of PKC activators in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. (58/379)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) characteristically presents with early memory loss. Regulation of K(+) channels, calcium homeostasis, and protein kinase C (PKC) activation are molecular events that have been implicated during associative memory which are also altered or defective in AD. PKC is also involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a central element in AD pathophysiology. In previous studies, we demonstrated that benzolactam (BL), a novel PKC activator, reversed K(+) channels defects and enhanced secretion of APP alpha in AD cells. In this study we present data showing that another PKC activator, bryostatin 1, at subnanomolar concentrations dramatically enhances the secretion of the alpha-secretase product sAPP alpha in fibroblasts from AD patients. We also show that BL significantly increased the amount of sAPP alpha and reduced A beta 40 in the brains of APP[V717I] transgenic mice. In a more recently developed AD double-transgenic mouse, bryostatin was effective in reducing both brain A beta 40 and A beta 42. In addition, bryostatin ameliorated the rate of premature death and improved behavioral outcomes. Collectively, these data corroborate PKC and its activation as a potentially important means of ameliorating AD pathophysiology and perhaps cognitive impairment, thus offering a promising target for drug development. Because bryostatin 1 is devoid of tumor-promoting activity and is undergoing numerous clinical studies for cancer treatment in humans, it might be readily tested in patients as a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Subtype-selective cholecystokinin receptor antagonists block cholecystokinin modulation of dopamine-mediated behaviors in the rat mesolimbic pathway. (59/379)

Subtype-selective antagonists of the peripheral-type (CCK-A) and the central-type (CCK-B) cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors were employed to determine the receptor subtype(s) mediating the modulatory actions of CCK on dopamine-induced changes in exploratory activity at three sites in the mesolimbic pathway of the rat. The CCK-A antagonist L-364,718 (10 ng) blocked CCK potentiation of dopamine-induced hyperlocomotion in the medial posterior nucleus accumbens. The CCK-B antagonist CI-988 (20 ng) blocked CCK inhibition of dopamine-induced hyperlocomotion in the anterior nucleus accumbens. The CCK-B antagonists CI-988 (20 ng) and L-365,260 (10 ng) blocked CCK potentiation of dopamine-induced hypolocomotion in the ventral tegmental area. These data indicate a CCK-B pharmacology in the cell body and anterior terminal field, and a CCK-A pharmacology in the posterior terminal field, of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Behavioral analyses using the selective CCK antagonists did not detect a contribution of endogenous CCK to exploratory locomotion. L-364,718 (10 ng), L-365,260 (10 ng), and CI-988 (20 ng or 2 micrograms), microinjected into the medial posterior nucleus accumbens, anterior nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area, had no effect on baseline exploratory locomotion or on dopamine-induced changes in exploratory locomotion. Using a dark-induced hyperlocomotion paradigm, the CCK antagonists at these doses at these sites and intraperitoneally had no effect on the high levels of exploratory locomotor activity exhibited by the rats in the dark testing environment, or the lower levels of exploratory activity in the lighted environment. Endogenous CCK may not be released during dopamine-induced hyperlocomotion or dark-induced hyperlocomotion, or endogenous CCK may not contribute significantly to exploratory behaviors mediated through the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Utilization of these potent, selective, nonpeptide CCK antagonists, with the doses, vehicles, and routes of administration developed in the present studies, will guide further investigations into the role of endogenous CCK in other facets of mesolimbic function.  (+info)

The role of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on the function and survival of isolated human pancreatic islets. (60/379)

OBJECTIVE: Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and their activation may induce cell death. PBRs are expressed in human pancreatic islets, and cytokine-induced damage is accompanied by changes in their properties. We hypothesized that PBRs can have a role in human islet physiopathology, and evaluated the effects of prolonged exposure to two specific PBR ligands, PK11195 and Ro5-4864 on the function and survival of isolated human islets. DESIGN: Isolated human islets were prepared from the pancreas of 25 multiorgan cadaveric donors and incubated for 12 h in the presence of PK11195 or Ro5-4864. Insulin secretion studies and apoptosis experiments were then performed, together with assessment of intracellular pathways involved in islet cell function and survival. METHODS: Islets were prepared by enzymatic digestion and density gradient purification. Insulin secretion was assessed by the batch incubation method, and glucose oxidation was evaluated by the use of D-[U-(14)C]glucose. Apoptosis was studied using the TUNEL technique, ELISA methods, and electron microscopy evaluation. PCR experiments were performed by the use of specific primers. RESULTS: Glucose-stimulated insulin release was significantly lower after exposure to PK11195 than after exposure to Ro5-4864. This was accompanied by reduced glucose oxidation and no major change of insulin or GLUT-1 mRNA expression. Apoptosis was higher in PK11195-exposed islets, and electron microscopy demonstrated the involvement of beta-cells. The apoptotic effects were prevented by bongkrekic acid and low-dose cyclosporin A, which stabilize the mitochondrial membrane, and were associated with no evident change of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) or Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression. Caspase inhibition markedly reduced the amount of apoptosis, and the role of these proteases was confirmed by the increased activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged binding to PBRs may cause human beta-cells functional damage and apoptosis, a phenomenon which is prevented by stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane; occurs without changes of iNOS, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA expression; and involves caspase activation. These results suggest an involvement of PBRs in human pancreatic beta-cell function and survival.  (+info)

SJG-136 (NSC 694501), a novel rationally designed DNA minor groove interstrand cross-linking agent with potent and broad spectrum antitumor activity: part 1: cellular pharmacology, in vitro and initial in vivo antitumor activity. (61/379)

SJG-136 (NSC 694501) is a rationally designed pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer that binds in the minor groove of DNA. It spans 6 bp with a preference for binding to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences. The agent has potent activity in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) anticancer drug screen with 50% net growth inhibition conferred by 0.14 to 320 nmol/L (7.4 nmol/L mean). Sensitive cell lines exhibit total growth inhibition and 50% lethality after treatment with as little as 0.83 and 7.1 nmol/L SJG-136, respectively. COMPARE and molecular target analysis of SJG-136 data versus that of >60,000 compounds tested in the NCI 60 cell line screen shows that, although the agent has similarity to other DNA binding agents, the pattern of activity for SJG-136 does not fit within the clusters of any known agents, suggesting that SJG-136 possesses a distinct mechanism of action. Testing in the NCI standard hollow fiber assay produced prominent growth inhibition in 20 of 24 i.p. and 7 of 24 s.c. test combinations with 5 of 12 cell lines exhibiting cell kill. In addition, SJG-136 produced antitumor activity in mice bearing CH1 and CH1cisR xenografts, a cisplatin-resistant human ovarian tumor model, and also in mice bearing LS174T xenografts, a human colon tumor model. SJG-136 produces DNA interstrand cross-links between two N-2 guanine positions on opposite strands and separated by 2 bp. In human tumor cell lines, the cross-links form rapidly and persist compared with those produced by conventional cross-linking agents such as nitrogen mustards. In mice bearing the LS174T human colon xenograft, DNA interstrand cross-links can be detected in tumor cells using a modification of the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay after administration of a therapeutic dose. Cross-links in the tumor increase with dose and are clearly detectable at 1 hour after i.v. administration. The level of cross-linking persists over a 24-hour period in this tumor in contrast to cross-links produced by conventional cross-linking agents observed over the same time period.  (+info)

SJG-136 (NSC 694501), a novel rationally designed DNA minor groove interstrand cross-linking agent with potent and broad spectrum antitumor activity: part 2: efficacy evaluations. (62/379)

Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine dimer SJG-136 (NSC 694501) selectively cross-links guanine residues located on opposite strands of DNA, and exhibits potent in vitro cytotoxicity. In addition, SJG-136 is highly active in vivo in hollow fiber assays. In the current investigation, SJG-136 was evaluated for in vivo efficacy in 10 tumor models selected on the basis of sensitivity of cells grown in the hollow fiber and in vitro time course assays: LOX IMVI and UACC-62 (melanomas); OVCAR-3 and OVCAR-5 (ovarian carcinomas); MDA-MB-435 (breast carcinoma); SF-295 and C-6 (gliomas); LS-174T (colon carcinoma); HL-60 TB (promyelocytic leukemia); and NCI-H522 (lung carcinoma). SJG-136 was active against small (150 mg) and large (250-400 mg) xenografts with tumor mass reductions in all 10 models. In addition, significant growth delays occurred in nine models, cell kill in six models ranged between 1.9 and 7.2 logs, and there were 1 to 4/6 tumor-free responses in six models. SJG-136 is active following i.v. bolus injections, as well as by 5-day continuous infusions. Of all of the schedules tested, bolus administrations for 5 consecutive days (qd x 5) conferred the greatest efficacy. SJG-136 is active over a wide dosage range in athymic mouse xenografts: on a qd x 5 schedule, the maximum-tolerated dose was approximately 120 microg/kg/dose (total dose: 0.6 mg/kg = 1.8 mg/m2) and the minimum effective dose in the most sensitive model (SF-295) was approximately 16 microg/kg/dose (total dose: 0.08 mg/kg = 0.24 mg/m2). Results of this study extend the initial in vivo observations reported in the reference above and confirm the importance of expediting more detailed preclinical evaluations on this novel agent in support of phase I clinical trials in the United Kingdom and the United States, which are planned to commence shortly.  (+info)

The novel sequence-specific DNA cross-linking agent SJG-136 (NSC 694501) has potent and selective in vitro cytotoxicity in human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with evidence of a p53-independent mechanism of cell kill. (63/379)

SJG-136 (NSC 694501) is a novel DNA cross-linking agent that binds in a sequence-selective manner in the minor groove of the DNA helix. It is structurally novel compared with other clinically used DNA cross-linking agents and has exhibited a unique multilog differential pattern of activity in the NCI 60-cell line screen (i.e., is COMPARE negative to other cross-linking agents). Given this profile, we undertook a preclinical evaluation of SJG-136 in primary tumor cells derived from 34 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. SJG-136 induced apoptosis in all of the B-CLL samples tested with a mean LD50 value (the concentration of drug required to kill 50% of the cells) of 9.06 nmol/L. Its cytotoxicity was undiminished in B-CLL cells derived from patients treated previously, those with unmutated VH genes, and those with p53 mutations (P=0.17; P=0.63; P=0.42, respectively). SJG-136-induced apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-3 that could be partially abrogated by the caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK. Furthermore, SJG-136 did not trigger the phosphorylation of p53 or the up-regulation of GADD45 expression in B-CLL cells whereas the cross-linking agent chlorambucil elicited both of these effects. This suggests that SJG-136 cross-linking adducts are not subject to p53-mediated DNA excision repair mechanisms in B-CLL cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel mechanism of action for SJG-136 that appears to circumvent the effects of poor prognostic markers. This unique cytotoxicity profile warrants further investigation and supports the evaluation of this agent in Phase I clinical trials for patients with B-CLL.  (+info)

Characterization of gastrin-induced proangiogenic effects in vivo in orthotopic U373 experimental human glioblastomas and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (64/379)

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the role of gastrin-17 (G17) on angiogenesis features in gliomas both in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The influences of G17 and G17 receptor antagonists were characterized in vitro in terms of angiogenesis on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tubulogenesis processes on Matrigel and in vivo with respect to U373 orthotopic glioma xenografts. The influence of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, protein kinase C, and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors was characterized in vitro on G17-mediated HUVEC tubulogenesis. G17-mediated release of interleukin (IL)-8 from HUVECs and G17-induced modifications in nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity were characterized by means of specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The influence of G17 on E- and P-selectin expression was determined by means of computer-assisted microscopy, whereas the influence of E- and P-selectin on HUVEC migration was approached by means of antisense oligonucleotides. The chemotactic influence of G17 and IL-8 on HUVEC migration was characterized by means of computer-assisted videomicroscopy with Dunn chambers. RESULTS: Messenger RNAs for cholecystokinin (CCK)A, CCKB, and CCKC receptors were present in HUVECs and microvessels dissected from a human glioblastoma. Whereas G17 significantly increased the levels of angiogenesis in vivo in the U373 experimental glioma model and in vitro in the HUVECs, the CCKB receptor antagonist L365,260 significantly counteracted the G17-mediated proangiogenic effects. G17 chemoattracted HUVECs, whereas IL-8 failed to do so. IL-8 receptor alpha (CXCR1) and IL-8 receptor beta (CXCR2) mRNAs were not detected in these endothelial cells. Gastrin significantly (but only transiently) decreased the level of expression of E-selectin, but not P-selectin, whereas IL-8 increased the expression of E-selectin. Specific antisense oligonucleotides against E- and P-selectin significantly decreased HUVEC tubulogenesis processes in vitro on Matrigel. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that gastrin has marked proangiogenic effects in vivo on experimental gliomas and in vitro on HUVECs. This effect depends in part on the level of E-selectin activation, but not on IL-8 expression/release by HUVECs.  (+info)