Isolation of the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor: association with the voltage-dependent anion channel and the adenine nucleotide carrier. (49/379)

The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR) has been solubilized with retention of reversible ligand binding, and the associated subunits were characterized. mBzR comprises immunologically distinct protein subunits of 18-, 30-, and 32-kDa. The 18-kDa protein is labeled by the isoquinoline carboxamide mBzR ligand [3H]PK14105, whereas the 30- and 32-kDa subunits are labeled by the benzodiazepine (Bz) ligands [3H]flunitrazepam and [3H]AHN-086. Selective antibodies and reagents identify the 32- and 30-kDa proteins as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide carrier (ADC), respectively. While isoquinoline carboxamide and Bz ligands target different subunits, they interact allosterically, as the binding of Bz and isoquinoline carboxamide ligands is mutually competitive at low nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, eosin-5-maleimide and mercuric chloride inhibit [3H]PK11195 binding to the intact receptor via sulfhydryl groups that are present in ADC. VDAC and ADC, outer and inner mitochondrial membrane channel proteins, respectively, together with the 18-kDa subunit, may comprise mBzR at functionally important transport sites at the junction of two mitochondrial membranes.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of the partial allosteric modulatory effects of bretazenil at gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor. (50/379)

In central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibits neuronal activity by acting on GABA type A (GABAA) receptors. These heterooligomeric integral membrane proteins include a GABA-gated Cl- channel and various allosteric modulatory sites where endogenous modulators and anxiolytic drugs act to regulate GABA action. In vivo, various anxiolytic drugs exhibit a wide range of variability in their modulatory efficacy and potency of GABA action. For instance, bretazenil modulatory efficacy is much lower than that of diazepam. Such low efficacy could be due either to a preferential modulation of specific GABAA receptor subtypes or to a low modulatory efficacy at every GABAA receptor subtype. To address these questions we studied drug-induced modifications of GABA-activated Cl- currents in native GABAA receptors of cortical neurons in primary cultures and in recombinant GABAA receptors transiently expressed in transformed human embryonic kidney cells (293) after transfection with cDNAs encoding different molecular forms of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of GABAA receptors. In cortical neurons the efficacy of bretazenil was lower than that of diazepam, whereas the potency of the two drugs was similar. In cells transfected with gamma 2 subunits and various molecular forms of alpha and beta subunits bretazenil efficacy was always lower than that of diazepam. However, in cells transfected with gamma 1 or gamma 3 subunits and various forms of alpha and beta subunits the efficacy of both diazepam and bretazenil was lower and always of similar magnitude. When bretazenil and diazepam were applied together to GABAA receptors including a gamma 2 subunit, the action of diazepam was curtailed in a manner related to the dose of bretazenil.  (+info)

Unusual effects of benzodiazepines and cyclodiene insecticides on an expressed invertebrate GABAA receptor. (51/379)

We have previously reported [(1991) EMBO J. 10, 3239-3245] the sequence of an invertebrate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptor polypeptide which forms homo-oligomeric GABA-gated, bicuculline-sensitive, chloride-ion channels upon heterologous expression. We now demonstrate that the benzodiazepines Ro5-4864 (4'-chlorodiazepam) and diazepam, that are active at mammalian peripheral benzodiazepine sites, and not those benzodiazepines specific for central sites, directly active the homo-oligomeric receptor and evoke larger maximal responses than those elicited by GABA. In addition, members of the cyclodiene class of insecticides block the channel of the receptor in a manner indistinguishable from that of picrotoxin.  (+info)

Expression patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit mRNAs in primary cultures of granule neurons and astrocytes from neonatal rat cerebella. (52/379)

Using a competitive polymerase chain reaction assay, we have quantitated the absolute amounts of mRNA encoding 14 distinct subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons and cerebellar astrocytes. We found that the total amount of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA in astrocytes was 2 orders of magnitude lower than in neuronal cells. Furthermore, granule cell cultures expressed all 14 different GABAA subunit mRNAs, while the astroglial cultures contained detectable amounts of all the subunits expressed by granule cells except the alpha 6 and the gamma 2L subunits. Of the alpha subunit family members, the alpha 1, alpha 5, and alpha 6 mRNAs were prominent in granule cells, while the alpha 1 and alpha 2 mRNAs were abundant in astrocytes. Of the beta receptor subunit mRNAs, the beta 1 and beta 3 mRNAs were abundantly expressed in both cultures. The gamma 2S and gamma 2L mRNAs constituted the great majority of gamma subunit mRNAs in neurons, while the gamma 1 subunit mRNA was the most abundant gamma subunit mRNA in astrocytes. When various allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors were tested electrophysiologically, methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline- 3-carboxylate (DMCM) was the only one to modulate chloride currents elicited by GABA in a significantly different manner in granule cells (negative modulation) compared with astrocytes (positive modulation). The latter effect was previously observed in transiently expressed recombinant GABAA receptors containing a gamma 1 instead of a gamma 2 subunit. Our quantitative mRNA results suggest that an important molecular determinant responsible for the DMCM-positive modulatory effect on astroglial native GABAA receptors is the presence of the gamma 1 subunit in the receptor assembly.  (+info)

Role of cholecystokinin in the inhibition of gastric acid secretion in dogs. (53/379)

1. This study was designed to determine the involvement of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the gastric secretory responses to exogenous and endogenous secretagogues in conscious dogs with chronic gastric fistulae (GF), pancreatic fistulae (PF) and Heidenhain pouches (HP). 2. A meal of meat or intragastric application of peptone (300 mosM) increased secretion of HCl from the HP and pancreatic secretion of protein and plasma levels of gastrin, CCK and somatostatin. 3. The CCK receptor antagonist L-364,718 caused a further increase in the postprandial HCl secretion from the HP and in the plasma levels of gastrin and CCK but pancreatic output of protein and plasma concentration of somatostatin were significantly reduced. 4. Addition to intragastric peptone of 10% oleate or its acidification to pH 3.0 profoundly inhibited the HP secretion and gastrin release but significantly increased pancreatic secretion of protein and plasma levels of CCK and somatostatin. Administration of L-364,718 reversed the fall in the HP secretion and plasma gastrin while significantly attenuating pancreatic protein secretion and plasma somatostatin levels. 5. Intragastric administration of hyperosmolar (1200 mosM) peptone also inhibited HCl secretion from the HP but this was not affected by L-364,718. 6. Exogenous CCK and bombesin (but not gastrin) caused a small increase in HCl secretion from the HP and marked stimulation of pancreatic protein secretion accompanied by a significant rise in plasma levels of gastrin, CCK and somatostatin. Administration of L-364,718 resulted in a further increase in the HCl response of HP to bombesin and in plasma levels of gastrin and CCK but caused a reduction in plasma levels of somatostatin. 7. We conclude that CCK released by a meal of meat, intragastric peptone, oleate or acidified peptone and intravenous bombesin exerts tonic inhibitory influences on gastric acid secretion and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by somatostatin.  (+info)

Restoration of cell surface CD4 expression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells by treatment with a Tat antagonist. (54/379)

Productive infection of T lymphocytes with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is accompanied by a diminution of surface CD4 receptors. Treatment of chronically HIV-1-infected CD4-negative T cells in vitro with the Tat antagonist Ro 5-3335 resulted in a drug dose-dependent decrease in virus protein production and a reciprocal increase in surface CD4 display. The drug-treated cells remained viable, showed significantly reduced levels of the full-length and spliced HIV-1 mRNAs as detected by Northern (RNA) blot hybridization, and maintained integrated HIV-1 DNA. In immunoprecipitation studies with drug-treated cells, the levels of free 55-kDa CD4 protein increased and gp160 complexed with CD4 decreased in amount. These results show for the first time that certain cytopathogenic effects of chronic HIV-1 infection can be reversed by suppressing virus expression.  (+info)

Regulation of leptin distribution between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by cholecystokinin receptors. (55/379)

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a postprandial hormone that elicits a satiating effect and regulates feeding behaviour. CCK has been shown to enhance the effect of leptin in several experimental paradigms. The goal of this work was to characterize the effect of endogenous CCK on plasma leptin content by using CCK receptor antagonists. Therefore, we administered SR-27897, a selective CCK1 receptor antagonist, and L-365260, a selective CCK2 receptor antagonist, to fed and food-deprived rats and determined plasma leptin concentration by enzyme immunoassay. Plasma insulin and glucose concentration as well as food intake were also determined. Under our conditions, SR-27897 increased plasma concentration of leptin both in fed and food-deprived rats. It also increased food intake as well as plasma concentration of insulin in fed animals. L-365260 increased plasma leptin concentration only in fed rats. In animals receiving exogenous leptin, CCK-8 increased the ratio between the concentration of leptin in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. These results show that CCK receptor antagonists increases plasma concentration of leptin and suggest that endogenous CCK may facilitate the uptake of plasma leptin to the cerebrospinal fluid.  (+info)

Functional characterization and expression of PBR in rat gastric mucosa: stimulation of chloride secretion by PBR ligands. (56/379)

Previous studies have demonstrated that gastric mucosa contained high levels of the polypeptide diazepam binding inhibitor, the endogenous ligand of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). However, the expression and function of this receptor protein in these tissues have not been investigated. Immunohistochemistry identified an intense PBR immunoreactivity in the mucous and parietal cells of rat gastric fundus and in the mucous cells of antrum. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the mitochondrial localization of PBR in these cells. Binding of isoquinoline PK 11195 and benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 to gastric membranes showed that fundus had more PBR-binding sites than antrum, displaying higher affinity for PK 11195 than Ro5-4864. In a Ussing chamber, PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 increased short-circuit current (I(sc)) in fundic and antral mucosa in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of GABA(A) and central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) blockers. This increase in I(sc) was abolished after external Cl(-) substitution and was sensitive to chloride channels or transporter inhibitors. PK 11195-induced chloride secretion was also 1) sensitive to verapamil and extracellular calcium depletion, 2) blocked by thapsigargin and intracellular calcium depletion, and 3) abolished by the mitochondrial pore transition complex inhibitor cyclosporine A. PK 11195 had no direct effect on H(+) secretion, indicating that it stimulates a component of Cl(-) secretion independent of acid secretion in fundic mucosa. These data demonstrate that mucous and parietal cells of the gastric mucosa express mitochondrial PBR functionally coupled to Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion, possibly involved in the gastric mucosa protection.  (+info)