Cell type-specific anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity of the transactivation inhibitor Ro5-3335. (41/379)

The drug Ro5-3335 [7-chloro-5-(2-pyrryl)-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(H)-one] inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression at the transcriptional level through interference with Tat-mediated transactivation (M.-C. Hsu, A. D. Schutt, M. Holly, L. W. Slice, M. I. Sherman, D. D. Richman, M. J. Potash, and D. J. Volsky, Science 254:1799-1802, 1991). We confirmed this specific inhibitory effect in a quantitative bioassay based on transactivation of a chimeric gene comprising the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter fused to the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli and transfected in a HeLa cell line expressing Tat. Ro5-3335 was found to inhibit HIV-1 long terminal repeat-driven lacZ gene expression at a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.5 microM. The in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of Ro5-3335 was highly dependent on the nature of the host cells. The highest selectivity index, 50, was found in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. The selectivity index was between 1 and 10 in the CD4+ T-cell lines CEM, MOLT-4 (clone 8), and HUT-78. In MT-4 and MT-2 cells, Ro5-3335 had no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. The absence of anti-HIV-1 activity of Ro5-3335 in MT-4 cells was confirmed by using different parameters of virus replication and different multiplicities of infection. In persistently HIV-1-infected HUT-78/IIIB/LAI cells, Ro5-3335 failed to demonstrate any activity at subtoxic concentrations. The cytotoxicity of Ro5-3335 was significantly lower in peripheral blood lymphocytes than in the CD4+ T-cell lines.  (+info)

Anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic agents protect against soman-induced brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. (42/379)

Soman, a powerful inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, causes an array of toxic effects in the central nervous system including convulsions, learning and memory impairments, and, ultimately, death. We report on the protection afforded by postexposure antidotal treatments, combined with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) pretreatment, against these consequences associated with soman poisoning. Scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) or caramiphen (10 mg/kg) were administered 5 min after soman (1.2 LD50), whereas TAB (i.e., TMB4, atropine, and benactyzine, 7.5, 3, and 1 mg/kg, respectively) was injected in rats concomitant with the development of toxic signs. Atropine (4 mg/kg) was given to the two former groups at the onset of toxic symptoms. Caramiphen and TAB completely abolished electrographic seizure activity while scopolamine treatment exhibited only partial protection. Additionally, no significant alteration in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was noted following caramiphen or TAB administration, while scopolamine application resulted in a complex outcome: a portion of the animals demonstrated no change in the number of these sites whereas the others exhibited markedly higher densities. Cognitive functions (i.e., learning and memory processes) evaluated using the Morris water maze improved considerably by the three treatments when compared to soman-injected animals; the following rank order was observed: caramiphen > TAB > scopolamine. Additionally, statistically significant correlations (r = 0.72, r = 0.73) were demonstrated between two learning parameters and [3H]Ro5-4864 binding to brain membrane. These results show that drugs with a pharmacological profile consisting of anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties such as caramiphen and TAB, have a substantial potential as postexposure therapies against intoxication by organophosphates.  (+info)

Regulation of pregnenolone synthesis in C6-2B glioma cells by 4'-chlorodiazepam. (43/379)

An experimental model to study synthesis of cholesterol and pregnenolone from the precursor mevalonolactone (MVA) was developed in C6-2B glioma cells. The steroidogenic capability of this cell line and the regulation of pregnenolone production by 4'-chlorodiazepam (4'CD), a specific ligand for the mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) receptor (MDR), were investigated. Cells maintained in serum-free media were incubated with lovastatin (20 microM) and two inhibitors of pregnenolone metabolism, trilostane (25 microM) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-oxo-7-chloro-2-naphthylpyridine (10 microM). Under these conditions the incorporation of [3H]MVA into cholesterol and pregnenolone formation was biphasic, with an initial rapid phase (within 1 min) followed by a slower phase. Cholesterol and pregnenolone were identified by coelution with authentic steroids from a Si 60 Lichrosorb column and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pregnenolone synthesis in intact C6-2B glioma cells was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of 4'CD after 5 min of incubation with MVA. The stimulatory effect was dependent on drug concentration and the maximal effect was achieved at 10 nM. The time course showed that the incorporation of MVA into pregnenolone is accelerated by the MDR ligand. Cholesterol synthesis is only slightly and not significantly affected by 4'CD. These results support the view that steroid synthesis occurs in a glioma cell line. Moreover, we provide evidence for a rapid steroid synthesis in C6-2B glioma cells, which in turn appears to be accelerated by 1-100 nM 4'CD, a MDR ligand.  (+info)

Influences of cholecystokinin octapeptide on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal-rat brain cells. (44/379)

Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) has been shown to be coupled to phosphoinositide turnover in pancreatic acini as well as in a kind of neuroblastoma cell and a human embryonic cell line. Little is known, however, about its link with phosphatidylinositol breakdown in the brain. The brains (minus cerebella) from 1-2-day-old neonatal rats were enzymically dissociated into single cells. The intact cells were prelabelled by incubation with myo-[3H]inositol for 3 h, and were then stimulated with agonists in the presence of 10 mM-LiCl. Carbachol at 1 mM induced an increase in InsP3 labelling in brain cells (peak at 30 min, and then a gradual decrease), and a static accumulation of InsP with time, whereas the labelling of InsP2 remained essentially unchanged. A very similar time-response curve was obtained for 10 nM-CCK-8 in stimulating phosphoinositide turnover. The dose-response curve for incubated brain cells revealed that the formation of InsP3 increased when the concentration of CCK-8 was increased from 0.1 to 10 nM. A further increase in CCK-8 concentration to 100-1000 nM resulted in a gradual decrease in InsP3 formation. InsP and InsP2 levels stayed relatively stable. The production of InsP3 stimulated by 10 nM-CCK-8 was dose-dependently suppressed by the CCK-A antagonist Devazepide in the concentration range 1-10 nM; the effect declined when the concentration was further increased to 100-1000 nM. In contrast, the CCK-B antagonist L365,260 showed a sustained suppression of InsP3 production at concentrations above 0.1 nM, i.e. in the range 1-1000 nM. The results provide evidence that CCK-8 stimulates the turnover of phosphoinositide and increases InsP3 labelling in dissociated neonatal-rat brain cells, in which both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors seem to be involved.  (+info)

L-365,260, a potent CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, suppresses gastric acid secretion induced by histamine and bethanechol as well as pentagastrin in rats. (45/379)

We evaluated the effects of a potent cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, L-365,260 (3R(+)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin - 3-yl)-N'-( 3-methylphenyl) urea); a selective CCK-A receptor antagonist, devazepide (L-364,718); and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion induced by pentagastrin, histamine and bethanechol in anesthetized rats. We also evaluated the effects of L-365,260 and cimetidine on acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Intravenous administration of L-365,260, L-364,718 and cimetidine dose-dependently reduced acid secretion induced by pentagastrin (20 nmol/kg/hr), with ED50 values of 0.63, 19.1 and 2.5 mumol/kg, respectively. Of interest was the finding that L-365,260, like cimetidine, dose-dependently inhibited acid secretion induced by histamine (100 mumol/kg/hr) and bethanechol (5 mumol/kg/hr) with ED50 values of 5.9 and 4.3 mumol/kg, respectively. L-364,718, even at 30 mumol/kg, i.v., had only a slight effect on histamine- or bethanechol-induced acid secretion. Gastric acid secretion was suppressed by treatment with L-365,260 (3-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and cimetidine (11.9-396.4 mumol/kg, i.v.) in pylorus-ligated rats, with ED50 values of 13.3 and 96.9 mumol/kg, respectively. These results indicate that L-365,260 suppresses acid secretion induced by histamine and bethanechol in rats and that the gastrin receptor plays an important role in acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats.  (+info)

Pharmacology of a cholecystokinin receptor on 5-hydroxytryptamine neurones in the dorsal raphe of the rat brain. (46/379)

1. The effect of bath application of sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was studied on neurones in slices containing rat raphe nucleus. 2. Intracellular recordings were made from neurones in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Some of the neurones with the characteristics of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-containing cells which were inhibited by 5-HT and excited by noradrenaline were excited by cholecystokinin. The response to cholecystokinin was dose-dependent over the range 10 to 1000 nM. 3. The response to CCK-8 persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Either reduction of extracellular calcium or addition of 25 mM magnesium did not block the CCK response, suggesting it was mediated by receptors located on the membrane of the raphe neurones. 4. The agonist and antagonist specificity of the CCK response was determined. The CCKB selective agonist, pentagastrin, was inactive when applied at concentrations up to 10 microM. the CCKA receptor antagonist L-364,718 (1 to 100 nM) blocked the response to cholecystokinin. Much higher (1-10 microM) concentrations of the CCKB receptor antagonist L-365,260 were required for inhibition of the CCK response. 5. These data support the existence of a CCK receptor, located on raphe neurones in the rat, with a pharmacological profile very similar to that described for the CCKA type.  (+info)

New pyrrolobenzodiazepine antibiotics, RK-1441A and B. II. Isolation and structure. (47/379)

Antibacteriophage antibiotics, RK-1441A and B, related to neothramycin were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. and their structures were deduced from spectroscopic analyses. The structure of RK-1441A was 8,11-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-5-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c:1,4]benzodiazepine. RK-1441B is a tautomeric mixture at C-3 of the structure, 3,8,11-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-5-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c:1,4]benzodiazepine.  (+info)

New pyrrolobenzodiazepine antibiotics, RK-1441A and B. I. Biological properties. (48/379)

Streptomyces griseus and bacteriophage B were used for an assay system detecting anti-bacteriophage antibiotics. Streptomyces sp. RK-1441 was found to produce antibacteriophage antibiotics, RK-1441A and B, which are pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepine group antibiotics related to neothramycin. Both RK-1441A and B had antibacteriophage activity. The former showed antimicrobial activity on a hypersensitive strain of E. coli for antitumor antibiotics, but the later did not show the activity. Restriction enzyme assay suggested that RK-1441A formed adducts with guanine residues in DNA strands. RK-1441B was not active in vitro, but it might be converted to the active form in host organisms.  (+info)