Long-lasting cholecystokinin(2) receptor blockade after a single subcutaneous injection of YF476 or YM022. (17/379)

Histamine-forming ECL cells in the rat stomach operate under the control of gastrin. They represent a convenient target for studying cholecystokinin-B/gastrin (CCK(2)) receptor antagonists in vivo. We examined the effectiveness and duration of action of two CCK(2) antagonists, YM022 and YF476, with respect to their effect on ECL-cell histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity in the rat. Oral administration of subcutaneous deposition of YF476 or YM022 reduced the HDC activity. The maximum/near-maximum dose for both drugs and for both modes of administration was 300 micromol kg(-1) (effects measured 24 h after dose). At this dose and time the serum concentration of YF476 was 20 - 40 nmol l(-1). The dose 300 micromol kg(-1) was used in all subsequent studies. A single subcutaneous injection of YF476 inhibited the HDC activity for 8 weeks. The circulating concentration of YF476 remained high for the same period of time (>/=15 nmol l(-1)). Subcutaneous YM022 suppressed the HDC activity for 4 weeks. A single oral dose of YF476 or YM022 inhibited the HDC activity for 2 - 3 days. Chronic gastric fistula rats were used to study the effect of subcutaneous YF476 on gastrin-stimulated acid secretion. A single injection of YF476 prevented gastrin from causing an acid response for at least 4 weeks (the longest time studied). We conclude that a single subcutaneous injection of 300 micromol kg(-1) YF476 causes blockade of CCK(2) receptors in the stomach of the rat for 8 weeks thus providing a convenient method for studies of the consequences of long-term CCK(2) receptor inhibition.  (+info)

CCKB/gastrin receptors mediate changes in sodium and potassium absorption in the isolated perfused rat kidney. (18/379)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the function of cholecystokinin B (CCKB)/gastrin receptors in the rat kidney, we identified the receptors by Northern blot and localized the receptors by immunohistochemistry. The functional effects of gastrin were studied under standardized in vitro conditions using the isolated perfused kidney. METHODS: Rat kidneys were mounted in an organ bath by attaching the renal artery to a perfusion system. A catheter was inserted into the renal vein and the ureter to collect samples that were analyzed for the concentrations of electrolytes. After a preperfusion period, gastrin-17-I was given via the renal artery (10-8 to 10-6 mol/L). Subsequently, hemodynamic parameters (for example, perfusate flow) and changes in sodium and potassium absorption were determined. All data were subjected to a nonparametric analysis of variance and, in case of significant results, to subsequent paired comparisons by the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis detected CCKB receptor transcripts in total RNA isolated from kidneys. Immunohistochemistry localized CCKB receptors on tubules and collecting duct cells. Compared with controls, gastrin (10-6 mol/L) caused a decrease in the fractional sodium reabsorption (basal 80%, 10 minutes after application of gastrin 71%, after 20 minutes 62%, P < 0.05). This effect was inhibited by the CCKB receptor antagonist L-365,260. Gastrin decreased urinary potassium excretion at 10-8 and 10-6 mol/L [maximal decrease at 10-6 mol/L from baseline values (100%) to 49% after 10 minutes and to 69% after 20 minutes, P < 0.05, N = 6]. This effect was also abolished by the CCKB receptor antagonist L-365,260. Gastrin (10-6 mol/L) reduced perfusate flow by 31% (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CCKB receptors are expressed in the rat kidney on tubules and collecting ducts. These receptors mediate changes in renal potassium and sodium absorption. In addition, gastrin causes a decrease in perfusate flow, indicating that CCKB receptors might also modulate vascular resistance in the kidney.  (+info)

Cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptors enhance wound healing in the rat gastric mucosa. (19/379)

Although physiological functions of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor are well explored, little is known about its role during healing. Here, we evaluated the role of this receptor in the rat oxyntic mucosa following the introduction of a cryoulcer. In this model, we located and quantified CCK-B/gastrin receptors by reverse transcriptase PCR and receptor autoradiography. Rats with cryoulcers were treated with placebo, omeprazole, the CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist YF-476, omeprazole plus YF-476, gastrin-17, and gastrin 17 plus YF-476. During wound healing, CCK-B/gastrin receptors were specifically expressed and localized to the regenerative mucosal ulcer margin. This high expression was limited in time, and the pattern of expression of CCK-B/gastrin receptors correlated closely with the proliferative activity of the regenerative mucosa. Functionally, omeprazole and gastrin-17 caused profound hypergastrinemia, increased cell proliferation in the mucosal ulcer margin and accelerated the late ulcer healing phase. These effects were completely reversed by cotherapy with YF-476. These in vivo and vitro data suggest that CCK-B/gastrin receptors in regenerative rat gastric oxyntic mucosa enhance trophic effects during wound healing.  (+info)

Slow delayed rectifier current and repolarization in canine cardiac Purkinje cells. (20/379)

Although cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) are believed to be the source of early afterdepolarizations generating ventricular tachyarrhythmias in long Q-T syndromes (LQTS), the ionic determinants of PC repolarization are incompletely known. To evaluate the role of the slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) in PC repolarization, we studied PCs from canine ventricular false tendons with whole cell patch clamp (37 degrees C). Typical I(Ks) voltage- and time-dependent properties were noted. Isoproterenol enhanced I(Ks) in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC(50) approximately 30 nM), negatively shifted I(Ks) activation voltage dependence, and accelerated I(Ks) activation. Block of I(Ks) with 293B did not alter PC action potential duration (APD) in the absence of isoproterenol; however, in the presence of isoproterenol, 293B significantly prolonged APD. We conclude that, without beta-adrenergic stimulation, I(Ks) contributes little to PC repolarization; however, beta-adrenergic stimulation increases the contribution of I(Ks) by increasing current amplitude, accelerating I(Ks) activation, and shifting activation voltage toward the PC plateau voltage range. I(Ks) may therefore provide an important "braking" function to limit PC APD prolongation in the presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation.  (+info)

Nematicidal alkaloids and related compounds produced by the fungus Penicillium cf. simplicissimum. (21/379)

A new nematicidal alkaloid, peniprequinolone (1), together with the known alkaloids penigequinolones A and B (2a, 2b), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)quinolinone (3), and 3-methoxy-4,6-dihydroxy-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)quinolinone (4), were isolated from Penicillium cf. simplicissimum (Oudemans) Thom. Cyclopenin (5) and a compound (6a/6b) structurally related to cyclopenin also were isolated from the fungus, and their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. The biological activities of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were examined by a bioassay with root-lesion nematodes.  (+info)

Functional characterization of rat submaxillary gland muscarinic receptors using microphysiometry. (22/379)

1. Muscarinic cholinoceptors (MChR) in freshly dispersed rat salivary gland (RSG) cells were characterized using microphysiometry to measure changes in acidification rates. Several non-selective and selective muscarinic antagonists were used to elucidate the nature of the subtypes mediating the response to carbachol. 2. The effects of carbachol (pEC(50) = 5.74 +/- 0.02 s.e.mean; n = 53) were highly reproducible and most antagonists acted in a surmountable, reversible fashion. The following antagonist rank order, with apparent affinity constants in parentheses, was noted: 4-DAMP (8.9)= atropine (8.9) > tolterodine (8.5) > oxybutynin (7.9) > S-secoverine (7.2) > pirenzepine (6.9) > himbacine (6.8) > AQ-RA 741 (6.6) > methoctramine (5.9). 3. These studies validate the use of primary isolated RSG cells in microphysiometry for pharmacological analysis. These data are consistent with, and extend, previous studies using alternative functional methods, which reported a lack of differential receptor pharmacology between bladder and salivary gland tissue. 4. The antagonist affinity profile significantly correlated with the profile at human recombinant muscarinic M(3) and M(5) receptors. Given a lack of antagonists that discriminate between M(3) and M(5), definitive conclusion of which subtype(s) is present within RSG cells cannot be determined.  (+info)

Mobilization of rat stomach ECL-cell histamine in response to short- or long-term treatment with omeprazole and/or YF 476 studied by gastric submucosal microdialysis in conscious rats. (23/379)

1. Mobilization of histamine from the ECL cells was monitored by gastric submucosal microdialysis in conscious rats. The ECL cells are known to operate under gastrin control and the purpose of the present study was to examine their in situ response to short-term (12 h) as well as long-term (28 days) hypergastrinaemia, induced by treatment with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. 2. Hypergastrinaemia promptly raised the histamine concentration in the microdialysate. The effect was prevented by CCK(2) receptor blockade (YF476). On day 7 of omeprazole treatment the microdialysate histamine concentration reached a peak, five times higher than before treatment. Subsequently (14 and 28 days), less histamine was mobilized. 3. Gastrin infusion (4 h) raised the microdialysate histamine concentration in a dose-dependent manner in fasted rats and freely fed rats and in rats treated with omeprazole for a week. However, while fasted and fed rats responded to low doses of gastrin, the omeprazole-treated rats required large doses of gastrin to respond. 4. When the amount of histamine mobilized was related to the serum gastrin concentration the following EC(50) values could be calculated: fasted rats 2.3 x 10(-10) M, freely fed rats 2.5 x 10(-10) M, omeprazole-treated rats 8.7 x 10(-10) M. The maximal histamine responses in the three groups were 18.4 pmol 4 h(-1)+/-0.8, 21.9 pmol 4 h(-1)+/-1.2 and 68.0 pmol 4 h(-1)+/-3.5, respectively. 5. The results suggest that ECL cells, exposed to a high gastrin concentration for a week, respond with a shift in the receptor-ligand binding affinity from high to low. Apparently, CCK(2) receptors of the ECL cells are subject to dynamic changes with respect to ligand-binding affinity.  (+info)

Effects of JL13, a pyridobenzoxazepine with potential atypical antipsychotic activity, in animal models for schizophrenia. (24/379)

JL13 [5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5] benzoxazepine fumarate] is a substance with a close structural resemblance to clozapine. However, it is less sensitive to oxidation and may therefore have less hematological side effects. In the present study, JL13 was compared with clozapine and haloperidol in several animal models for schizophrenia. The paw test represents a screening model for antipsychotic drugs that can discriminate between drugs with extrapyramidal side effects and drugs without. Haloperidol increased both forelimb retraction time and hindlimb retraction time (HRT), whereas both clozapine and JL13 increased only HRT. In the prepulse inhibition paradigm, all three drugs reversed the apomorphine- and the amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. However, whereas haloperidol was equally effective against both dopaminergic drugs, JL13 and clozapine were more effective against amphetamine. Finally, only JL13 was able to increase prepulse inhibition in normal rats, whereas only clozapine reduced basal startle amplitude. Taken together, these data suggest that JL13 may be an effective antipsychotic drug, with a profile similar to clozapine.  (+info)