Initiation of DNA synthesis in cell cultures by colcemid.
(33/37)Mitotic inhibitors (colcemid, colchicine, and vinblastine) initiate DNA synthesis in dense stationary cultures of mouse embryo fibroblast-like cells. This initiation is not due to any changes in local cell population density. Relationships between the activation of proliferation and other changes of interphase fibroblast-like cells produced by the mitotic inhibitors (disappearance of cytoplasmic microtubules and activation of movements of cell surface) are discussed. (+info)
The melanocyte model. Colchicine-like effects of other antimitotic agents.
(34/37)The effect of various agents that cause metaphase arrest in dividing cells was studied on the rapid reversible darkening of frog skin under the influence of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Darkening is due to dispersion of melanin granules in melanocytes and is thought to be accompanied by a gel-to-sol cytoplasmic transformation. After subsequent washing the skin lightens, with aggregation of melanin granules and cytoplasmic gelation. As previously shown with colchicine, preincubation of frog skin with vinblastine, vincristine, or colcemid produced an increase in darkening induced by MSH, as compared to control skins, and a dosage-dependent inhibition of subsequent lightening. Preincubation with each drug, without subsequent MSH, produced a gradual, irreversible, dosage-dependent darkening over several hours. On a molar basis, the relative strength of the various agents was vinblastine > vincristine > colcemid > colchicine; vinblastine was about 100 times stronger than colchicine. Preincubation of frog skin with griseofulvin, followed by washing, had no subsequent effects on darkening or lightening. However, effects similar to those of the Colchicum and Vinca alkaloids were seen if griseofulvin was kept in the ambient media. These effects were rapidly reversible on removal of the drug from the media. These findings support the melanocyte model originally proposed for the action of colchicine, and emphasize certain facts that models of melanin granule movement will have to accommodate. (+info)
Functional differences between peroxidase compound I and the cytochrome P-450 reactive oxygen intermediate.
(35/37)A series of seven hemeproteins, cytochromes P-450LM2, P-450LM4, and P-420LM2, horseradish peroxidase, chloroperoxidase, catalase, and metmyoglobin, as well as hemin were tested for their ability to catalyze a set of five oxidative reactions. These reactions were a typical peroxidative reaction (oxidation of pyrogallol to purpurogallin) and three characteristic P-450 reactions (aliphatic hydroxylation, aromatic hydroxylation, and olefinic epoxidation). In addition, the ability to decarboxylate a peroxyacid was measured. All hemeproteins were able to carry out peroxidation, but three (horseradish peroxidase, chloroperoxidase, and catalase) were much better catalysts than the others. Only the P-450 enzymes were competent catalysts for the hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. Furthermore, the decarboxylation reaction was strictly limited to the P-450 enzymes, establishing it as a new, unique P-450 activity. Since the decarboxylation of peroxyacids is diagnostic of peroxide homolysis, these results indicate a fundamentally different manner of processing of peroxides by cytochrome P-450 than by the peroxidases. Thus, the possibility of close similarity of reactive oxygen intermediates in the two series is called into question. (+info)
Oxidation of 6,7-dihydro-5H-benzocycloheptene by bacterial strains expressing naphthalene dioxygenase, biphenyl dioxygenase, and toluene dioxygenase yields homochiral monol or cis-diol enantiomers as major products.
(36/37)Bacterial strains expressing naphthalene, biphenyl, and toluene dioxygenase were examined for their abilities to oxidize 6,7-dihydro-5H-benzocycloheptene (benzocyclohept-1-ene). The major oxidation products were isolated, and their absolute configurations were determined by chiral 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of diastereomeric boronate esters, chiral stationary-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, and stereo-chemical correlation. Pseudomonas sp. strain 9816/11 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (formerly identified as a Beijerinckia sp.) B8/36 expressing naphthalene and biphenyl dioxygenases, respectively, oxidized benzocyclohept-1-ene to a major product identified as (-)-(1R,2S)-cis-dihydroxybenzocycloheptane (> 98% enantiomeric excess [ee], 50 and 90% yield, respectively). In contrast, Pseudomonas putida F39/D expressing toluene dioxygenase oxidized benzocyclohept-1-ene to (+)-(5R)-hydroxybenzocyclohept-1-ene (> 98% ee, 90% yield) as the major metabolite and to the "opposite" diol, (+)-(1S,2R)-cis-dihydroxybenzocycloheptane (> 98% ee, 10% yield). The results indicate that, for benzocyclohept-1-ene, the major reaction catalyzed by naphthalene and biphenyl dioxygenases is dioxygenation whereas toluene dioxygenase catalyzes mainly R-stereospecific benzylic monooxygenation. Although the type of reaction catalyzed by each organism was not predictable, the absolute configuration of the diol and monol products formed by naphthalene and toluene dioxygenases are consistent with the stereochemistry of the products formed by these enzymes from other benzocycloalkene substrates. (+info)
Biological activity of purpurogallin.
(37/37)Purpurogallin showed antibacterial activity toward gram-positive bacteria. Strong activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against methicillin of 1600 micrograms/ml] was found, with MIC of 11.0 micrograms/ml. Purpurogallin inhibited the growth of all tested plants and decreased the chlorophyll content in the cotyledons of Brassica campestris subsp. rapa. It showed potent inhibitory activity against prolyl endopeptidase (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 1.6 x 10(-5) M), unlike its analogues, hinokitiol and tropolone. (+info)