Simultaneous SPECT studies of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine binding sites in baboons.
(9/4453)The central nervous system dopamine transporters (DATs) and dopamine D2/D3 receptors are implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment. With the successful development of [99mTc]TRODAT-1, single-isotope imaging studies using this ligand for DAT imaging can be complemented by additional use of 123I-labeled D2/D3 receptor ligand co-injected to assess both pre- and postsynaptic sites of the dopaminergic system simultaneously. METHODS: Twelve SPECT scans of the brain were obtained in two baboons after intravenous administration of 740 MBq (20 mCi) [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 (technetium, [2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]oct-2-yl]methyl ](2-mercaptoethyl) amino]ethyl]-amino]ethanethiolato (3-)]- oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]) and 185 MBq (5 mCi) [123I]iodobenzamide or [123I]iodobenzofuran. SPECT data were acquired by a triple-head gamma camera equipped with ultra-high-resolution fanbeam collimators (scan duration = 210 min). Two sets of SPECT data were obtained using energy windows of 15% centered on 140 keV for 99mTc and 10% asymmetric with a lower bound at 159 keV for 123I. After coregistration with MRI, region-of-interest analysis was performed using predefined templates from coregistered MRI. In blocking studies, baboons were pretreated with N-methyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT, 14 mg) or raclopride (14 mg) to block DAT or D2/D3 binding site, respectively. RESULTS: Image quality of dual-isotope studies was similar to that obtained from single-isotope studies. When one site was blocked with CFT or raclopride, the binding of the respective ligand to the other site was not affected. CONCLUSION: This is the first example that clearly demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic sites of the dopaminergic system in baboons with dual-isotope SPECT studies. With or without corrections for cross-contamination of 123I into the 99mTc window, striatum-to-cerebellum ratios (target-to-nontarget) of dual-isotope experiments did not differ significantly from single-isotope experiments. This method may be a valuable and cost-effective tool for gaining comprehensive information about the dopaminergic system in one SPECT imaging session. (+info)
Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase protect rat cardiomyocytes against oxidant stress.
(10/4453)OBJECTIVE: Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activity reduce the infarct size caused by regional myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in the rabbit and rat in vivo. The mechanism of action of these inhibitors is unclear. Here we investigate the effects of the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) on infarct size caused by ischaemia and reperfusion of the isolated, perfused heart of the rat. We also investigate the role of PARS in the hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell injury/necrosis in rat cardiac myoblasts. METHODS: Rat isolated hearts perfused at constant pressure (80 mmHg) were subjected to 35 min of regional ischaemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined at the end of the experiment using nitro-blue tetrazolium. 3-AB (300 microM) or 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-ABA, 300 microM) were infused during the reperfusion period. Rat cardiac myoblasts (H9c2 cells) were preincubated with the PARS inhibitors, 3-AB. nicotinamide (Nic) or 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (ISO) or the inactive analogues 3-ABA or nicotinic acid (NicA) prior to exposure with hydrogen peroxide (1 mM). Cell injury was assessed by measuring mitochondrial respiration and cell necrosis by measuring the release of LDH. PARS activity was determined by measuring the incorporation of NAD into nuclear proteins. RESULTS: Regional ischaemia and reperfusion of the isolated rat heart resulted in an infarct size of 54% which was reduced by 3-AB, but not by 3-ABA. Exposure of rat cardiac myoblasts to hydrogen peroxide caused an increase in PARS activity and cell injury/necrosis which was attenuated by pretreatment with the PARS inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of the activity of PARS attenuates the cell death associated with oxidant stress in rat cardiac myoblasts and heart. (+info)
Alkaloid binding and activation of D2 dopamine receptors in cell culture.
(11/4453)Ergot and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, either extracted from endophyte-infected tall fescue, synthesized, or purchased commercially, were evaluated in cultured cells to estimate their binding to the D2 dopamine receptor and subsequent effects on cyclic AMP production in GH4ZR7 cells, transfected with a rat D2 dopamine receptor. Ergopeptide alkaloid (alpha-ergocryptine, bromocryptine, ergotamine tartrate, and ergovaline) inhibition of the binding of the D2-specific radioligand, [3H]YM-09151-2, exhibited inhibition constants (K(I)) in the nanomolar range, whereas dopamine was less potent (micromolar). The lysergic acid amides (ergine and ergonovine) were 1/100th as potent as the ergopeptide alkaloids. Ergovaline and ergotamine tartrate were equally effective in inhibiting vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with consistent nanomolar effective concentration (EC50) values. The remaining ergopeptide alkaloids (alpha-ergocryptine and bromocryptine), lysergic acid amides (ergonovine and ergine), and dopamine were 1/100th as potent. Two representative pyrrolizidines, N-formylloline and N-acetylloline, exhibited no binding activity at the D2 dopamine receptor or effects on the cyclic AMP system within the concentration ranges of nanomolar to millimolar. Our results indicate that the commercially available ergot alkaloids ergotamine tartrate and ergonovine may be used interchangeably in the D2 dopamine receptor system to simulate the effects of extracted ergovaline and ergine and to examine responses in receptor binding and the inhibition of cyclic AMP. (+info)
Ability of mosapride to bind to 5-HT4 receptor in the human stomach.
(12/4453)Ability of mosapride, a gastrokinetic agent, to bind to 5-HT4 receptor was examined in the stomach of human and guinea pig by in vitro receptor autoradiography. [125I]SB207710 binding sites were detected in the muscle layer including the myenteric plexus of the stomach from both humans and guinea pigs, although the binding was observed more clearly and densely in the stomach of guinea pigs than humans. Mosapride as well as SB204070 inhibited the binding of [125I]SB207710. Thus, mosapride possesses the ability to bind to 5-HT4 receptors of human stomach and may modulate the motility, as in the case of guinea pig stomach. (+info)
Magnetic resonance detects metabolic changes associated with chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
(13/4453)Apoptosis was induced by treating L1210 leukaemia cells with mechlorethamine, and SW620 colorectal cells with doxorubicin. The onset and progression of apoptosis were monitored by assessing caspase activation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and cell morphology. In parallel, 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectra of cell extracts were recorded. In L1210 cells, caspase activation was detected at 4 h. By 3 h, the MR spectra showed a steady decrease in NTP and NAD, and a significant build-up of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P) dihydroxyacetonephosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate, indicating modulation of glycolysis. Treatment with iodoacetate also induced a build-up of F-1,6-P, while preincubation with two poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide, prevented the drop in NAD and the build-up of glycolytic intermediates. This suggested that our results were due to inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, possibly as a consequence of NAD depletion following poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. Doxorubicin treatment of the adherent SW620 cells caused cells committed to apoptosis to detach. F-1,6-P was observed in detached cells, but not in treated cells that remained attached. This indicated that our observations were not cell line- or treatment-specific, but were correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells following drug treatment. The 31P MR spectrum of tumours responding to chemotherapy could be modulated by similar effects. (+info)
A comparison of the inhibitory activity of PDE4 inhibitors on leukocyte PDE4 activity in vitro and eosinophil trafficking in vivo.
(14/4453)1. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been shown to inhibit eosinophil PDE4 activity in vitro and accumulation of eosinophils in experimental airways inflammation. However, direct effects on eosinophil trafficking have not been studied in detail and it is not known if activity in vitro translates into efficacy in vivo. In the present study, we compared the activity of five PDE4 inhibitors in vitro and against trafficking of (111)In-eosinophils in cutaneous inflammation in the guinea-pig. 2. The rank order of potency for inhibition of PDE4 activity in guinea-pig eosinophil, neutrophil and macrophage, and human neutrophil lysates was RP73401 > SB207499 >CDP840 > rolipram > LAS31025. On TNFalpha production by human PBMC, all inhibitors with the exception of rolipram showed potency similar to their effect on neutrophil lysates. 3. In a brain cerebellum binding assay, the rank order of potency at displacing [3H]-rolipram was RP73401 > rolipram > SB207499 > CDP840 > LAS30125. 4. Trafficking of (111)In-eosinophils to skin sites injected with PAF, ZAP or antigen in sensitized sites was inhibited by oral administration of all PDE4 inhibitors. The rank order of potency was RP73401 = rolipram > LAS31025 > SB207499 > CDP840. 5. With the exception was RP73401, which was the most potent compound in all assays, there was no clear relationship between activity of PDE4 inhibitors in vitro and capacity to inhibit eosinophil trafficking in vivo. Thus, we conclude that in vitro activity of PDE4 inhibitors does not predict in vivo efficacy in an experimental model of eosinophil trafficking. (+info)
Neuroprotective effects of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in transient focal cerebral ischemia of rats.
(15/4453)AIM: To explore the role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in focal cerebral ischemia with reperfusion injury. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent 3.5-h of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture. Infarction volume was showed with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and quantitated by image analysis system, neurologic scores were determined with a 0-5 grading scale. RESULTS: 3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB) 10 mg.kg-1 or nicotinamide (Nic) at 20 mg.kg-1 showed potent neuroprotective effects within 0-6 h, neurologic deficits were attenuated. With the increasing dose of PARP inhibitors, beneficial effects were compromised, particularly, administration of Nic 60 mg.kg-1 at the onset of reperfusion drastically accelerated brain damage. Phytomenadione, a selective inhibitor of mono (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, had little effect on infarction volume. CONCLUSION: Transient incomplete inhibition of PARP provides a neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, with a relatively wide therapeutic window, whereas severe inhibition of this enzyme, especially in reperfusion phase, is detrimental. (+info)
Effect of chronic social stress on delta-opioid receptor function in the rat.
(16/4453)Previous studies have shown that stressors modify endogenous opioid systems. However, the consequences of social stress on the function of endogenous opioid systems is not well documented. The present studies investigated the effect of rank and housing condition on response to SNC-80, a delta receptor agonist. Triad-housed rats were assessed for dominance status by their behavior and alteration in body weights. At 3 and 50 days, triad- and individually housed rats were injected with SNC-80 (35 mg/kg i.p.) or saline, and evaluated using a test battery consisting of open field behaviors, rectal temperature, analgesia, and air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. After 50 days of housing, plasma corticosterone, adrenal catecholamines, and the density of cyclic[D-penicillamine2-D-penicillamine2]enkephalin-stimu lat ed guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding in the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, arcuate, and median eminence were also determined. The first 24 h of triad housing resulted in loss of body weight in subdominant (betas and gammas) but not dominant alpha rats. SCN-80-induced hypothermia was smaller, and there was no depression of headpoke and locomotor behavior in the periphery and the center of the field of alpha rats, in contrast to subdominant and singly housed rats. Rank status did not influence SNC-80's analgesic effect or its inhibition of air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma corticosterone levels of alphas and gammas were lower compared with betas and singly housed rats. Agonist stimulation of delta receptor guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding was lateralized in prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but not nucleus accumbens. Binding was highest in all brain areas of singly housed rats and lowest in the thalamus of beta and of gamma rats. Lateralized binding in amygdala, high locomotor activity, and sensory sensitivity correlated positively with greater sensitivity to SNC-80-induced depression in these measures. Higher binding in the right amygdala correlated with higher plasma corticosterone levels. These findings indicate that dominant rats displayed stimulant rather than depressant responses to delta-opioid activation. Therefore in rodents rank-related stress can alter responsiveness of the endogenous opioid system, and dominance can increase the excitatory effects of delta agonists. (+info)