Sulfonylurea receptors: ABC transporters that regulate ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. (49/4453)

The association of sulfonylurea receptors (SURs) with K(IR)6.x subunits to form ATP-sensitive K(+) channels presents perhaps the most unusual function known for members of the transport ATPase family. The integration of these two protein subunits extends well beyond conferring sensitivity to sulfonylureas. Recent studies indicate SUR-K(IR)6.x interactions are critical for all of the properties associated with native K(ATP) channels including quality control over surface expression, channel kinetics, inhibition and stimulation by Mg-nucleotides and response both to channel blockers like sulfonylureas and to potassium channel openers. K(ATP) channels are a unique example of the physiologic and medical importance of a transport ATPase and provide a paradigm for how other members of the family may interact with other ion channels.  (+info)

Review article: cardiac adverse effects of gastrointestinal prokinetics. (50/4453)

Gastrointestinal prokinetics, such as metoclopramide, cisapride and levosulpiride, are widely used for the management of functional gut disorders. Recently, several studies have shown that cisapride (a partial 5-HT4 receptor agonist) can induce dose-dependent cardiac adverse effects, including lengthening of the electrocardiographic QT interval, syncopal episodes and ventricular dysrhythmias. Until recently, it was not clear whether these effects were dependent on 5-HT4 receptor activation or related to peculiar characteristics in the molecular structure of single agents within the benzamide class. Experimental evidence now favours the second hypothesis: cisapride possesses Class III antiarrhythmic properties and prolongs the action potential duration through blockade of distinct voltage-dependent K+ channels, thus delaying cardiac repolarization and prolonging the QT interval. Patients at risk of cardiac adverse effects are children, subjects with idiopathic, congenital or acquired long QT syndrome and, in particular, those receiving concomitant medication with Class III antiarrhythmic agents, some H1-receptor antagonists (e.g. terfenadine), or drugs such as azole antifungals (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and fluconazole) and macrolide antibacterials (e.g. erythromycin, clarithrod-mycin and troleandomycin), which can inhibit cisapride metabolism by interfering with the CYP3A4 isoenzyme.  (+info)

Nerve-mediated motility of ileal segments isolated from NK(1) receptor knockout mice. (51/4453)

Tachykinins such as substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) acting on neurokinin (NK) receptors modulate the nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract of several species, but the information about the mouse small intestine is scanty. Both SP and NKA induced concentration-dependent contractions of ileal segments isolated from wild-type mice that were blocked by NK(1) and NK(2) antagonists, respectively. In contrast, segments isolated from NK(1) receptor (NK(1)-R) knockout mice responded only to elevated concentrations of SP. To reveal the inhibitory NANC (iNANC) responses, tissues were pretreated with atropine and guanethidine. Under these conditions, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) was observed. NK(1)-R knockout mice presented a trend toward an increase in iNANC responses, whereas the NK(1)-R antagonist significantly potentiated iNANC relaxation in tissues isolated from wild-type mice. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 microM) transformed the relaxant response to EFS into a tetrodotoxin-sensitive, frequency-dependent contraction characteristic of an excitatory NANC (eNANC) system. A NK(1)-R antagonist abolished the contractile responses of the mouse ileum to EFS, whereas a NK(2) receptor antagonist had a trend toward reducing EFS-induced contraction. The eNANC component was absent in NK(1)-R knockout mice. Measurement of SP-like immunoreactivity indicated similar amounts of SP per gram of tissue isolated from wild-type and NK(1)-R knockout mice, indicating that the observed differences in response to EFS were not due to a differential peptide content. It is concluded that, in the mouse ileum, both NK(1) and NK(2) receptors modulated the responses to exogenous tachykinins, whereas NK(1) is the primary tachykinin receptor involved in both iNANC and eNANC transmission.  (+info)

Effects of antisense oligonucleotides on brain delta-opioid receptor density and on SNC80-induced locomotor stimulation and colonic transit inhibition in rats. (52/4453)

1. To reduce the density of delta-opioid receptor protein, five antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (aODN), targeting the three exons of rat delta-opioid receptor mRNA (DOR), were injected twice daily for 4 days or continuously infused for 7 days into brain lateral ventricles (i.c.v.) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats acting as controls were infused or injected with a mismatch sequence (mODN) of each aODN. The density of opioid receptors in rat brain membranes was measured by saturation binding experiments using selective ligands for delta, mu and kappa opioid receptors. 2. aODNs injected twice a day for 4 days left rat brain delta-opioid receptor density unchanged. The ODN targeting the DOR nucleotide sequence 280 - 299 (aODN280 - 299, exon 2), decreased brain delta-opioid receptor density significantly more than aODNs targeting exon 1 (aODN239 - 258), exon 2 (aODN361 - 380), or exon 3 (aODN741 - 760) (to 52% vs 79, 72, and 68%). None of the aODNs to the DOR changed the brain density of mu- or k-opioid receptors. 3. When in a novel environment (but not when kept in their home cages), the locomotor activity of aODN280 - 299 treated rats was significantly lower than that of saline or mODN treated rats. The delta-opioid agonist SNC80 (5 mg kg-1, s.c.) significantly and potently stimulated locomotion and delayed colonic propulsion in saline- and mODN-infused rats, but left motor behaviour and colonic transit of delta-knockdown rats unchanged. 4. The baseline nociceptive threshold and the antinociceptive response to morphine were unchanged in delta-knockdown rats.  (+info)

Increased expression of preprotachykinin-I and neurokinin receptors in human breast cancer cells: implications for bone marrow metastasis. (53/4453)

Neuropeptides are implicated in many tumors, breast cancer (BC) included. Preprotachykinin-I (PPT-I) encodes multiple neuropeptides with pleiotropic functions such as neurotransmission, immune/hematopoietic modulation, angiogenesis, and mitogenesis. PPT-I is constitutively expressed in some tumors. In this study, we investigated a role for PPT-I and its receptors, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and NK-2, in BC by using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, ELISA, and in situ hybridization. Compared with normal mammary epithelial cells (n = 2) and benign breast biopsies (n = 21), BC cell lines (n = 7) and malignant breast biopsies (n = 25) showed increased expression of PPT-I and NK-1. NK-2 levels were high in normal and malignant cells. Specific NK-1 and NK-2 antagonists inhibited BC cell proliferation, suggesting autocrine and/or intercrine stimulation of BC cells by PPT-I peptides. NK-2 showed no effect on the proliferation of normal cells but mediated the proliferation of BC cells. Cytosolic extracts from malignant BC cells enhanced PPT-I translation whereas extracts from normal mammary epithelial cells caused no change. These enhancing effects may be protein-specific because a similar increase was observed for IL-6 translation and no effect was observed for IL-1alpha and stem cell factor. The data suggest that PPT-I peptides and their receptors may be important in BC development. Considering that PPT-I peptides are hematopoietic modulators, these results could be extended to understand early integration of BC cells in the bone marrow, a preferred site of metastasis. Molecular signaling transduced by PPT-I peptides and the mechanism that enhances translation of PPT-I mRNA could lead to innovative strategies for BC treatments and metastasis.  (+info)

Behavioral changes and [123I]IBZM equilibrium SPECT measurement of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in rhesus monkeys exposed to subchronic amphetamine. (54/4453)

Previously we have shown that twelve weeks of repeated low-dose d-amphetamine (AMPH) exposure in rhesus monkeys induces a long-lasting enhancement of behavioral responses to acute low-dose challenge. The present study was designed to investigate the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of a six-week regimen of low-dose AMPH exposure (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.m., b.i.d.) in rhesus monkeys. SPECT imaging of AMPH's (0.4 mg/kg) ability to displace [123I]IBZM bound to D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of saline control and AMPH-treated animals prior to and following chronic treatment was accomplished using a bolus/constant infusion paradigm. Following chronic AMPH treatment, all monkeys showed an enhanced behavioral response to acute AMPH challenge and a significant decrease in the percent of AMPH-induced displacement of [123I]IBZM in striatum compared to their pretreatment scans. These findings suggest that relatively small changes in presynaptic dopamine function may be reflected in significant alterations in the behavioral response to acute AMPH challenge.  (+info)

Anti-inflammatory activities of a new series of selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors derived from 9-benzyladenine. (55/4453)

Adenine derivatives substituted in position 9 have been demonstrated to have potent phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition properties with high selectivity toward PDE4. We compared the effects of various compounds derived from 9-benzyladenine with those of the selective PDE4 inhibitor RP 73401 on the inhibition of PDE4 isolated from bovine aorta, arachidonic acid, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by mononuclear cells from healthy subjects. The rank order of potency of the various compounds for in vitro activities on arachidonic acid release is RP 73401 > NCS 613 > NCS 630 > NCS 632 > BWA 78U = NCS 631. The most effective compounds in vitro (RP 73401 and NCS 613) were further investigated in vivo. Both PDE inhibitors dose dependently (1, 10, and 30 mg/kg per os) inhibited the recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to endotoxin via aerosol. Significant differences were observed with 10 and 30 mg/kg RP 73401 and 30 mg/kg NCS 613. In rats, RP 73401, but not NCS 613, significantly increased basal acid secretion at 30 mg/kg i.v. and pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion at 0.3, 1, and 10 mg/kg. These results demonstrate that the compounds derived from 9-benzyladenine, namely NCS 613, elicit anti-inflammatory activities. It is also suggested that their activities have been mediated through the inhibition of PDE4 isoenzyme. The fact that NCS 613 did not stimulate the gastric acid secretion suggests that this compound may produce fewer gastrointestinal side effects than second-generation PDE4 inhibitors, such as RP 73401.  (+info)

Pregnancy induces a modulation of the cAMP phosphodiesterase 4-conformers ratio in human myometrium: consequences for the utero-relaxant effect of PDE4-selective inhibitors. (56/4453)

The inhibitory impacts of RP 73401, a phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) selective inhibitor of the second generation, versus rolipram, the prototypal PDE4 inhibitor, were evaluated and compared on cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and contractility of the myometrium in nonpregnant and pregnant women. In enzymatic studies, RP 73401 and rolipram inhibited the cAMP PDE activity with significantly greater maximal efficiency in the myometrium of pregnant compared with nonpregnant women (75 versus 55%; P <.05). Although myometrial PDE4 presented a single class of interaction with RP 73401 [pD(2) (-log [IC(50)]) = -8.2], it exhibited at least two classes of interaction with rolipram (pD(2) = -8.2 and -5.6). In the myometrium of pregnant versus nonpregnant women, rolipram is significantly more efficacious in the concentration range >0.01 to 100 microM (P <.01), whereas no difference was observed for the concentration range <0.01 microM. In contractility studies, RP 73401 was equally effective in relaxing myometrial strips from both nonpregnant and pregnant women (pD(2) = -8.8). Conversely, the ability of rolipram to inhibit contractions of the myometrium in pregnant women was significantly lower (pD(2) = -7.2) compared with that in nonpregnant women (pD(2) = -8.2; P <.01). Concomitantly, in the myometrium of pregnant women, a rise in immunoreactive PDE4B2 signal was detected, whereas the PDE4D3 signal was less intense. These results demonstrate that parallel to an accumulation of PDE4B2 isoform, a modification in the ratio of PDE4 conformers HPDE4 and LPDE4 (conformer that binds rolipram with high and low affinity, respectively) occurs in the myometrium of near-term pregnant women with an increase of LPDE4 functionally implicated in the contractile process. Such modifications provide a strong rationale to propose LPDE4 as potential pharmacologic targets for the design of new tocolytic treatments.  (+info)