Integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion involves geranylgeranylated protein(s). (41/4453)

Integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion is modulated by alterations in receptor affinity or by post-receptor events. Pretreatment of Jurkat T-cells with the 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, lovastatin, markedly reduced (IC(50) approximately 1-2 microM) alpha(4)beta(1)-dependent adhesion to fibronectin (FN) stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) which modulates post-receptor events. In contrast, lovastatin did not inhibit Jurkat cell adhesion to FN induced by the beta(1) integrin-activating monoclonal antibody (mAb) 8A2, which directly modulates beta(1) integrin affinity. Similarly, pretreatment of U937 cells with lovastatin inhibited PMA-stimulated, but not mAb 8A2-stimulated, alpha(6)beta(1)-dependent leukocyte adhesion to laminin. The inhibition of lovastatin on PMA-stimulated leukocyte adhesion was not mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. The inhibitory effect of lovastatin on PMA-stimulated leukocyte adhesion was reversed by co-incubation with geranylgeraniol, but not with farnesol, with concurrent reversal of the inhibition of protein prenylation as shown by protein RhoA geranylgeranylation. The selective inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation by the specific protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I inhibitor, GGTI-298, blocked PMA-stimulated leukocyte adhesion but not mAb 8A2-induced leukocyte adhesion. The protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor, FTI-277, had no effect on leukocyte adhesion induced by either stimulus. These results demonstrate that protein geranylgeranylation, but not farnesylation, is required for integrin-dependent post-receptor events in leukocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Multiple effects of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid inhibitor on virus morphology and replication. (42/4453)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein is a major structural component of the virion core and a key factor involved in proviral DNA synthesis and virus formation. 2,2'-Dithiobenzamides (DIBA-1) and related compounds that are inhibitors of NCp7 are thought to eject zinc ions from NCp7 zinc fingers, inhibiting the maturation of virion proteins. Here, we show that the presence of DIBA-1 at the time of virus formation causes morphological malformations of the virus and reduces proviral DNA synthesis. Thus, it seems that DIBA-1 is responsible for a "core-freezing effect," as shown by electron microscopy analyses. DIBA-1 can also directly interfere with the fate of the newly made proviral DNA in a manner independent of its effects on virion core formation. These data strongly suggest that nucleocapsid protein is a prime target for new compounds aimed at inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses.  (+info)

Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins. (43/4453)

This study was carried out to determine whether tachykinins released from lung C-fiber afferents play a part in the bronchial hyperreactivity induced in guinea pigs by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS). Two matching groups of young guinea pigs were exposed to either mainstream CS (CS group) or air (control group) for 20 min twice daily for 14-17 days. There was no difference in the baseline total pulmonary resistance (RL) between the two groups, but the baseline dynamic lung compliance was reduced ( approximately 19%) in CS animals. The responses of RL to intravenous injections of ACh, neurokinin (NK) A, and capsaicin were all markedly increased in CS animals; for example, ACh at the same dose of 5.06 microg/kg increased RL by 207% in the control group and by 697% (n = 8; P < 0. 001) in the CS group. The increased responsiveness was accompanied by significant increases in the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in CS animals. Pretreatment with SR-48968 and CP-99994, antagonists of NK(1) and NK(2) receptors, respectively, did not alter the response of RL to ACh in control animals, but it abolished the elevated bronchoconstrictive response in the CS animals. Furthermore, the immunoreactivities of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected after capsaicin challenge were significantly increased in CS animals. These results show that chronic exposure to CS induced airway mucosal inflammation accompanied by bronchial hyperreactivity in guinea pigs and that the tachykininergic mechanism plays an important role in this augmented responsiveness.  (+info)

Graphical analysis and simplified quantification of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding with [123I]epidepride SPECT. (44/4453)

The purpose of this study was to extend the graphical analysis of reversible tracer binding to account for labeled lipophilic metabolites (metabolites) in quantifying [123I]epidepride binding to striatal and extrastriatal D2 receptors and, additionally, to evaluate the feasibility of simplified analysis to measure the specific volume of distribution (V3') using single-sample blood data because the tissue ratio (RT) may be a less reliable measure of D2 binding in the presence of metabolites. METHODS: Multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) and graphical analysis (GA) using plasma parent (P) plus metabolite (M) activities as input and time activities of receptor-free (RF, cerebellum) and receptor-containing regions (RR, striatum and temporal cortex) derived V3' = (alpha(RR)(P) - alpha(RF)(P)), V3' = (1 + delta) (alpha(RR) - alpha(RF)) and RT = V3'/(V2P' + deltaV2M'), where alpha is a regression coefficient, delta is the equilibrium area ratio of M and P, and (V2P'/V2M') are the corresponding nondisplaceable distribution volumes. V3' by simplified analysis (SA) was calculated from RT determined without blood data and (V2P' + deltaV2M') with single-blood sample data. The accuracy of these three V3' values was assessed relative to the metabolite-accounted kinetic analysis (KA) for [123I]epidepride SPECT studies of 11 healthy volunteers, in which each participant had 27 scans and 30 plasma samples drawn during the 14 h after injection. RESULTS: All three V3' values (mL/g) significantly correlated with those by KA (r > or = 0.90) (striatum/temporal cortex: MLRA, 77.8 +/- 36.6/2.35 +/- 1.16; GA, 98.8 +/- 34.2/4.61 +/- 1.77; SA, 83.9 +/- 24.8/4.26 +/- 1.74; KA, 107.6 +/- 34.4/5.61 +/- 1.84). However, the correlation between RT and V3' was only moderate (r < or = 0.65) because of significant intersubject variability (23%) in (V2P' + deltaV2M'). CONCLUSION: The graphical analysis can be extended to account for metabolites in measuring D2 binding with [123I]epidepride SPECT for both high and low D2 density regions. Additionally, simplified V3' measurements with single blood sampling are feasible and may be a practical alternative to the tissue ratio RT because RT suffers as a measure of D2 binding from significant intersubject variability in the metabolite-contributed distribution volume of the nondisplaceable compartment.  (+info)

Indomethacin-induced G1/S phase arrest of the plant cell cycle. (45/4453)

In animal systems, indomethacin inhibits cAMP production via a prostaglandin-adenylyl cyclase pathway. To examine the possibility that a similar mechanism occurs in plants, the effect of indomethacin on the cell cycle of a tobacco bright yellow 2 (TBY-2) cell suspension was studied. Application of indomethacin during mitosis did not interfere with the M/G1 progression in synchronized BY-2 cells but it inhibited cAMP production at the beginning of the G1 phase and arrested the cell cycle progression at G1/S. These observations are discussed in relation to the putative involvement of cAMP biosynthesis in the cell cycle progression in TBY-2 cells.  (+info)

A low content in zeatin type cytokinins is not restrictive for the occurrence of G1/S transition in tobacco BY-2 cells. (46/4453)

Theories on the importance of cytokinins in G1/S transition control are manifold and contradictory. By establishing a double A(phi-PZ block, maximal synchronization of a BY-2 suspension culture was obtained to investigate the effect of cytokinin depletion on G1/S transition. Lovastatin was used as a specific inhibitor of cytokinin biosynthesis. Flow cytometry showed that the G1/S transition occurred regardless of the cytokinin drop. This observation indicates an extremely low dose requiry for that stage of the cell cycle. It is very likely that precisely the downregulation of zeatin type cytokinins matters for the G1/S transition to occur, since cytokinin addition at early G1 blocked the cycle at G1/S.  (+info)

N-substituted benzamides inhibit NFkappaB activation and induce apoptosis by separate mechanisms. (47/4453)

Benzamides have been in clinical use for many years in treatment against various disorders. A recent application is that as a sensitizer for radio- or chemotherapies. We have here analysed the mechanism of action of N-substituted benzamides using an in vitro system. We found that while procainamide was biologically inert in our system, the addition of a chloride in the 3' position of the benzamide ring created a compound (declopramide) that induced rapid apoptosis. Furthermore, declopramide also inhibited NFkappaB activation by inhibition of IkappaBbeta breakdown. An acetylated variant of declopramide, N-acetyl declopramide, showed no effect with regard to rapid apoptosis induction but was a potent inhibitor of NFkappaB activation. In fact, the addition of an acetyl group to procainamide in the 4' position was sufficient to convert this biologically inactive substance to a potent inhibitor of NFkappaB activation. These findings suggest two potential mechanisms, induction of early apoptosis and inhibition of NFkappaB mediated salvage from apoptosis, for the biological effect of N-substituted benzamides as radio- and chemo-sensitizers. In addition it suggests that N-substituted benzamides are potential candidates for the development of anti-inflammatory compounds using NFkappaB as a drug target.  (+info)

Effects of inhibitors of the activity of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase on the organ injury and dysfunction caused by haemorrhagic shock. (48/4453)

1 Poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) is a nuclear enzyme activated by strand breaks in DNA, which are caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigate the effects of the PARS inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), nicotinamide and 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (ISO) on the circulatory failure and the organ injury/dysfunction caused by haemorrhage and resuscitation in the anaesthetized rat. 2 Haemorrhage (sufficient to lower mean arterial blood pressure to 50 mmHg for 90 min) and subsequent resuscitation with shed blood resulted (within 4 h after resuscitation) in a delayed fall in blood pressure to 66+/-4 mmHg (control, n=13). This circulatory failure was not affected by administration (5 min prior to resuscitation) of 3-AB (10 mg kg-1 i.v., n=7), nicotinamide (10 mg kg-1 i.v., n=6) or ISO (3 mg kg-1 i.v., n=6). 3 Haemorrhage and resuscitation also resulted in rises in the serum levels of urea and creatinine. This renal dysfunction was attenuated by 3-AB and nicotinamide, but not by nicotinic acid (n=7), an inactive analogue of nicotinamide. Although ISO (n=6) also attenuated the renal dysfunction caused by haemorrhage and resuscitation, its vehicle (10% DMSO, n=4) had the same effect. 4 Haemorrhagic shock resulted in enhanced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipase, indicating the development of hepatocellular and pancreatic injury, respectively. Similarly, haemorrhagic shock also resulted in an increase in the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) indicating the development of neuromuscular injury. This was attenuated by 3-AB and nicotinamide, but not by nicotinic acid. Although ISO also attenuated the liver, pancreatic and neuromuscular injury caused by haemorrhagic shock, its vehicle had the same effect. 5 Thus, activation of PARS contributes to the organ injury and dysfunction caused by haemorrhage and resuscitation in the rat.  (+info)