The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-associated collagen type Ialpha1/platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain fusion gene generates a transforming protein that is processed to functional PDGF-BB. (25/4453)

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) displays chromosomal rearrangements involving chromosome 17 and 22, which fuse the collagen type Ialpha1 (COLIA1) gene to the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain (PDGFB) gene. To characterize the functional and structural properties of the COLIA1/PDGFB fusion protein, we generated a stable NIH3T3 cell line that contained a tumor-derived chimeric gene resulting from a COIA1 intron 7-PDGFB intron 1 fusion. Expression of the fusion protein led to morphological transformation and increased growth rate of these cells. The PDGF receptor kinase inhibitor CGP57148B reversed the transformed phenotype and reduced the growth rate of COLIA1/PDGFB-expressing cells but had no effects on control cells. The presence of dimeric COLIA1/PDGFB precursors was demonstrated through PDGFB immunoprecipitations of metabolically labeled cells and also by PDGFB immunoprecipitations followed by immunoblotting with COLIA1 antibodies. Pulse-chase studies demonstrated that the COLIA1/PDGFB precursor was processed to an end product that was indistinguishable from wild-type PDGF-BB. Finally, COLIA1/PDGFB-expressing cells generated tumors after s.c. injection into nude mice, and tumor growth was reduced by treatment with CGP57148B. We conclude that the COLIA1/PDGFB fusion associated with DFSP contributes to tumor development through ectopic production of PDGF-BB and the formation of an autocrine loop. Our findings, thus, suggest that PDGF receptors could be a target for pharmacological treatment of DFSP and giant cell fibroblastoma, e.g., through the use of PDGF receptor kinase inhibitors such as CGP57148B.  (+info)

Serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors form homodimers when expressed alone and heterodimers when co-expressed. (26/4453)

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) 1B and 1D receptor subtypes share a high amino acid sequence identity and have similar ligand binding properties. In this study, we demonstrate that both receptor subtypes exist as monomers and homodimers when expressed alone and as monomers and heterodimers when co-expressed. Gene expression studies have shown that there are brain regions where the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors are co-localized and where heterodimerization may occur physiologically. This is the first direct visualization of the physical association between G protein-coupled receptors of different subtypes.  (+info)

Discriminative stimulus effects of the nonpeptidic delta-opioid agonist SNC80 in rhesus monkeys. (27/4453)

Five rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate the nonpeptidic, delta-opioid agonist SNC80 (0.32 mg/kg i.m.) from saline by using a food-reinforced drug-discrimination procedure. Cumulative doses of SNC80 produced a dose-dependent increase in SNC80-appropriate responding and a dose-dependent decrease in response rate. In time-course studies, peak effects of the training dose of SNC80 were observed after 15 min, and these effects diminished over 240 min. In substitution studies, other piperazinyl benzamide delta agonists (SNC86, SNC162, and SNC243A) substituted for SNC80 with relative potencies similar those of SNC80. However, SNC67, the (-)-enantiomer of SNC80, did not occasion SNC80-appropriate responding up to a dose (32.0 mg/kg) that produced convulsions in one monkey. The mu agonists morphine and fentanyl and the kappa agonists U-50,488 and enadoline failed to substitute for SNC80 up to doses that eliminated responding. Two nonopioids (the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine and the monoamine reuptake inhibitor cocaine) also produced primarily saline-appropriate responding. Both the discriminative stimulus and rate-decreasing effects of SNC80 were antagonized by the delta-selective antagonist naltrindole (0.01-1.0 mg/kg) but not by doses of the opioid antagonist quadazocine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) that block the effects of mu and kappa agonists. These data suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of SNC80 are mediated by delta-opioid receptors and that the discriminative stimulus effects of delta opioids in primates can be differentiated from the effects of other opioid and nonopioid compounds.  (+info)

Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase protect rat proximal tubular cells against oxidant stress. (28/4453)

BACKGROUND: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. ROS produce DNA strand breaks that lead to the activation of the DNA-repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). Excessive PARS activation results in the depletion of its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and subsequently of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), leading to cellular dysfunction and eventual cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various PARS inhibitors on the cellular injury and death of rat renal proximal tubular (PT) cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). METHODS: Rat PT cell cultures were incubated with H2O2 (1 mM) either in the presence or absence of the PARS inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB, 3 mM), 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (0.3 mM) or nicotinamide (Nic, 3 mM), or increasing concentrations of desferrioxamine (0.03 to 3 mM) or catalase (0.03 to 3 U/ml). Cellular injury and death were determined using the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, respectively. H2O2-mediated PARS activation in rat PT cells and the effects of PARS inhibitors on PARS activity were determined by measurement of the incorporation of [3H]NAD into nuclear proteins. RESULTS: Incubation of rat PT cells with H2O2 significantly inhibited mitochondrial respiration and increased LDH release, respectively. Both desferrioxamine and catalase reduced H2O2-mediated cellular injury and death. All three PARS inhibitors significantly attenuated the H2O2-mediated decrease in mitochondrial respiration and the increase in LDH release. Incubation with H2O2 produced a significant increase in PARS activity that was significantly reduced by all PARS inhibitors. 3-Aminobenzoic acid (3 mM) and nicotinic acid (3 mM), structural analogs of 3-AB and Nic, respectively, which did not inhibit PARS activity, did not reduce the H2O2-mediated injury and necrosis in cultures of rat PT cells. CONCLUSION: We propose that PARS activation contributes to ROS-mediated injury of rat PT cells and, therefore, to the cellular injury and cell death associated with conditions of oxidant stress in the kidney.  (+info)

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)--induced apoptosis in rat retina. (29/4453)

PURPOSE: The involvement of apoptosis in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in adult rat retinas was examined. METHODS: Excitotoxic loss of inner retinal elements was induced by intravitreal injections of various concentrations of neutralized NMDA in adult albino Lewis rats. Tissue responses were quantified by measuring the inner retinal thickness (IRT) in plastic sections of the retinas and cell counts in the retinal ganglion cell layer in flatmount preparations of the whole retinas. Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, was assayed with agarose DNA gel electrophoresis. The in situ TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method was used to locate nicked DNA in paraffin sections of the retinas. Ultrastructural changes of the degenerating cells were examined by electron microscopy. The efficacy of Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CMK (YVAD-CMK), a peptidyl caspase inhibitor, and 3-aminobenzamide (ABA), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), in ameliorating the loss of inner retinal elements was evaluated using morphometry to examine the apoptotic pathways. RESULTS: Intravitreal injection of NMDA induced a dose-dependent loss of inner retinal elements as evidenced by the measurements of IRT and RGCCs. There were time- and dose-related appearances of internucleosomal fragmentation of retinal DNA and a time-related appearance of TUNEL-positive nuclei in the inner retinas after intravitreal NMDA injection. Ultrastructural features consistent with classic apoptotic changes were noted in degenerating cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. Control retinas given vehicle, N-methyl-L-aspartate (the L-isomer of NMDA), or NMDA plus MK-801, a specific antagonist, did not show these changes. Simultaneous administration of NMDA and YVAD-CMK or ABA abolished or attenuated the loss of RGCCs in the posterior retinas. CONCLUSIONS: NMDA-induced excitotoxicity involved apoptosis and caspases and PARP may play important roles in the pathways.  (+info)

PET imaging of dopamine D2 receptors with [18F]fluoroclebopride in monkeys: effects of isoflurane- and ketamine-induced anesthesia. (30/4453)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) studies in monkeys with the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor ligand [18F]fluoroclebopride (FCP) would be significantly influenced by anesthetic induction with isoflurane (approximately 5.0%) compared to induction with 10 mg/kg ketamine. Five experimentally-naive adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to sit calmly in a primate restraint chair. Before the first PET scan, each monkey was anesthetized, by mask, with isoflurane. After complete sedation, the monkey was intubated and anesthesia was maintained throughout the PET study by isoflurane (approximately 1.5%). At least 1 month later, a second PET study was conducted in which anesthesia was induced with ketamine and maintained by isoflurane (approximately 1.5%). Irrespective of induction anesthetic, there was a high uptake of [18F]FCP and a linear rate of washout from the basal ganglia for all monkeys. There were also no differences in time to peak uptake (approximately 25 min), in clearance half-life (t1/2 = 140-164 min) or in D2 binding (distribution volume ratios of 2.48 vs. 2.50). These results indicate that induction anesthetic did not differentially affect D2 binding of [18F]FCP in monkeys. Furthermore, the low variability between studies indicates that [18F]FCP is an excellent ligand for longitudinal studies of D2 receptors in nonhuman primates.  (+info)

Inhibition of PARP prevents oxidant-induced necrosis but not apoptosis in LLC-PK1 cells. (31/4453)

Oxidant-induced cell injury has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several forms of acute renal failure. The present studies examined whether activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) by oxidant-induced DNA damage contributes to oxidant injury of renal epithelial cells. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase in PARP activity and decreases in cell ATP and NAD content. These changes were significantly inhibited by 10 mM 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA), a PARP inhibitor. In contrast, H2O2-induced DNA damage was not prevented by 3-ABA. Exposure of LLC-PK(1) cells to 1 mM H2O2 for 2 h induced necrotic cell death as measured by increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. 3-ABA completely prevented the H2O2-induced LDH release. Live/dead fluorescent staining confirmed the protection by 3-ABA. These results are consistent with the view that oxidant-induced DNA damage activates PARP and that the subsequent ATP and NAD depletion contribute to necrotic cell death. Of note, although protected from necrosis, cells treated with H2O2 and 3-ABA underwent apoptosis as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and bis-benzimide staining. In conclusion, activation of PARP contributes to oxidant-induced ATP depletion and necrosis in LLC-PK1 cells. However, PARP inhibition may target cells toward an apoptotic form of cell death.  (+info)

Toxicologic and carcinogenic effects of the type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor RP 73401 on the nasal olfactory tissue in rats. (32/4453)

RP 73401, a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caused toxic effects in the nasal olfactory region of Sprague-Dawley rats when administered by either oral or inhalation exposure. A single oral administration of RP 73401 (at a dose of > or = 50 mg/kg) or 5-day inhalation exposure (1 hr/day) at a dose of approximately 1.0 mg/kg per day caused degeneration and sloughing of the olfactory surface epithelium. Degeneration and loss of Bowman's glands were noted in the underlying lamina propria and submucosa. Electron microscopy of these lesions demonstrated that sustentacular cells and the epithelial cells lining Bowman's glands were the primary target cells in the olfactory mucosa. The earliest ultrastructural changes detected in these cells were dilatation and vesiculation of the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that metabolic activation is important for the toxic effects. In repeated-dose studies, 13 wk of oral dosing at 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg per day resulted in subtle disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, whereas basal cell hyperplasia in the olfactory epithelium was identified in a 6-month inhalation study at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg per day. A 2-yr inhalation carcinogenicity study resulted in tumors of the nasal olfactory region in rats treated at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg per day. Most tumors were classified as olfactory neuroblastomas, and immunohistochemistry on selected tumors was consistent with their being of neuroectodermal origin. Of the species studied (rat, mouse, and dog), the olfactory toxicity of RP 73401 was confined to the rat, and the toxicity was likely related to metabolic activation by olfactory epithelial cells rather than the phosphodiesterase activity of the compound.  (+info)