(1/209) Sustaining malaria prevention in Benin: local production of bednets.
Through a Benin-Canada participatory research initiative which included both Benin and Canadian non-governmental organizations, a local capacity to produce and market bednets for the prevention of malaria was developed. The development process began following a community-based assessment of local needs and skills. All materials for the manufacture and distribution of the bednets were obtained locally with the exception of the netting which was imported from Canada. The sustainability of the enterprise is enhanced by the community's recognition of the importance of malaria and the culturally acceptable practice of bednet use. (+info)
(2/209) Divergence of West African and North American communities of Aspergillus section Flavi.
West African Aspergillus flavus S isolates differed from North American isolates. Both produced aflatoxin B1. However, 40 and 100% of West African isolates also produced aflatoxin G1 in NH4 medium and urea medium, respectively. No North American S strain isolate produced aflatoxin G1. This geographical and physiological divergence may influence aflatoxin management. (+info)
(3/209) Concentrations of riboflavin and related organic acids in children with protein-energy malnutrition.
BACKGROUND: Riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) concentrations have been little studied in cases of malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of malnutrition on riboflavin status and riboflavin's relation with thyroid hormones and concentrations of urinary organic acids. DESIGN: Malnourished children from the savannah in Benin (group S, n = 30) and the coast in Togo (group C, n = 30), as well as 24 control subjects from both regions, were studied. Blood riboflavin, FMN, and FAD were analyzed by HPLC; urinary organic acids were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Children in group S were more severely malnourished than children in group C. Triiodothyronine concentrations were lower in group S than in group C or the control group (1.12 +/- 0.24 compared with 1.74 +/- 0.18 and 2.92 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.0001). Plasma riboflavin concentrations in group S were higher than those in group C or the control group (66.90 +/- 12.75 compared with 28.09 +/- 9.12 and 20.08 +/- 3.03 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.001). Plasma FAD concentrations in group S were lower than those in group C or the control group (31.57 +/- 10.19 compared with 59.02 +/- 5.60 and 65.35 +/- 5.23 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.0001). Dicarboxylic aciduria was higher in group C than in group S or the control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Children in group S had low triiodothyronine concentrations and low conversion of plasma riboflavin into its cofactors, leading to a plasma FAD deficiency. Plasma FAD was not correlated with urinary dicarboxylic acid concentrations. (+info)
(4/209) Economic impact of febrile morbidity and use of permethrin-impregnated bed-nets in a malarious area I. Study of demographics, morbidity, and household expenditures associated with febrile morbidity in the Republic of Benin.
In preparation for a study on the effect of bed net use on malaria, this article describes febrile morbidity and malaria expenditures in a sub-Saharan area (Benin) of hyperendemic malaria. The 325 randomly selected households were visited weekly between April 1994 and March 1995 to determine febrile morbidity and household expenditures for prevention and treatment. The results indicate that rural children had two febrile episodes annually compared with 0.3 episodes among children living in the city. There was no difference in mean annual febrile episodes between adults and children (adults = 1.5, children = 1.5; P = 0.48) and in the expenditures per febrile episode (adults = US$1.85, children = US$1.62; P = 0.45). Annual prevention expenditures were higher for adults than for children (US$1.73 and US$1.28, respectively; P < 0.001), although there was no significant difference in expenditures for annual treatment for adults and children (US$2.15 and US$2.34, respectively). These and other findings are analyzed further and discussed. (+info)
(5/209) Economic impact of febrile morbidity and use of permethrin-impregnated bed nets in a malarious area II. Determinants of febrile episodes and the cost of their treatment and malaria prevention.
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of permethrin insecticide-treated bed net (PITN) use on the incidence of febrile episodes and on household malaria expenses in Benin. Over the course of one year, 208 randomly selected PITN user and non-user households were visited weekly to determine expenditures on febrile morbidity and its treatment, and to monitor spending on malaria prevention. Multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish the effects of PITN use from other important determinants of morbidity, such as malaria-related beliefs and practices, income, and other socio-economic variables. Results from the logistic regression analysis show that the use of PITNs decreases the risk of febrile episodes by 34% in children living in the rural zone. Multiple regression analysis reveals that PITN use does not reduce prevention and treatment expenses. These expenses are significantly associated with women's income. This report also discusses other factors associated with febrile morbidity and malaria-related expenditures. (+info)
(6/209) Estimation of the prevalence of epilepsy in the Benin region of Zinvie using the capture-recapture method.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated in two villages of 3134 inhabitants, in Benin, in April and May 1997 using the capture-recapture method. METHODS: Information was obtained from (i) a door-to-door cross-sectional study, (ii) a non-medical source consisting of key informants (traditional practitioners, teachers, village leaders, and religious representatives) and (iii) a medical source through evaluation of medical records in health centres. In all the three situations, the diagnosis of epilepsy was confirmed by a neurologist. RESULTS: The door-to-door survey found 50 epileptics, i.e. a prevalence of 15.9 per 1000. The non-medical source found 26 patients. The medical source found only four patients. In total, 66 epileptics were found by combining the three sources, giving a prevalence of 21.1 per 1000. After application of the capture-recapture method, the estimated number of cases from the door-to-door survey and non-medical source was 105, and 110 cases when the medical source was considered as well. The respective prevalences were 33.5 per 1000, and 35.1 per 1000. CONCLUSIONS: The door-to-door survey has been usefully improved by using key informants. The epilepsy prevalence estimate found by capture-recapture is clearly higher than that found by traditional cross-sectional methods, and could better depict the frequency of epilepsy in Africa. (+info)
(7/209) Diagnostic performance of the Roche AMPLICOR PCR in detecting Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genitourinary specimens from female sex workers in Cotonou, Benin.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Roche multiplex AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR test for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in female urine specimens and wet and dry endocervical swabs. Endocervical swabs and urine specimens were collected from 342 female sex workers from Cotonou, Benin, and were tested using the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) with internal control detection. Endocervical swabs were also cultured on Thayer-Martin medium. A series of alternate standards that included a combination of all the tests but not the test being evaluated was used to assess the performance of the test with each type of specimen. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the urine were 53.8, 98.9, 93.5, and 87.5%, respectively. Corresponding figures for the wet swab were 91.5, 100, 100, and 97.4%, respectively. Those for the dry swab were 96.3, 96.2, 88.5, and 98.8%, respectively. Based on this study, the AMPLICOR PCR assay showed a low sensitivity for detection of N. gonorrhoeae infection in urine specimens, whereas the test was found to be highly sensitive and specific with endocervical specimens. (+info)
(8/209) Improved iodine status is associated with improved mental performance of schoolchildren in Benin.
BACKGROUND: An adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is known to be crucial to an individual's physical and mental development. The question of whether iodine supplementation later in life can exert a favorable influence on the mental performance of iodine-deficient populations was addressed in various studies, but with contradictory results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an improvement in iodine status on mental and psychomotor performance of schoolchildren (7-11 y) who were moderately to severely iodine deficient. DESIGN: The study, which was originally planned as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention, was carried out in an iodine-deficient population of schoolchildren (n = 196) in northern Benin. As the population began to have access to iodized salt during the 1-y intervention period, the study population was split post hoc-on the basis of urinary iodine concentrations-into a group with improved iodine status and a group with unchanged iodine status. Changes in mental and psychomotor performance over the intervention period were compared. RESULTS: Children with increased urinary iodine concentrations had a significantly greater increase in performance on the combination of mental tests than did the group with no change in urinary iodine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: An improvement in iodine status, rather than iodine status itself, determined mental performance in this population, which was initially iodine deficient. These findings suggest a "catch-up" effect in terms of mental performance. (+info)