Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer: influence of type of alcoholic beverage.
Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p for trend = 0.002). Corresponding relative risks for beer intake were 1.09 (95% CI 0.83-1.43) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.02-1.82), respectively (p for trend = 0.01); for spirits, they were 1.21 (95% CI 0.97-1.50) and 1.46 (95% CI 0.99-2.14), respectively (p for trend = 0.02). In women, the ability to detect associations with high alcohol intake and type of beverage was limited because of a limited range of alcohol intake. The authors concluded that in men, a high consumption of beer and spirits is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas wine intake may protect against the development of lung cancer. (+info)
Maleic acid and succinic acid in fermented alcoholic beverages are the stimulants of gastric acid secretion.
Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation (e.g., beer and wine) are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and gastrin release in humans. The aim of this study was to separate and specify the gastric acid stimulatory ingredients in alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation. Yeast-fermented glucose was used as a simple model of fermented alcoholic beverages; it was stepwise separated by different methods of liquid chromatography, and each separated solution was tested in human volunteers for its stimulatory action on gastric acid output and gastrin release. Five substances were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and were analyzed by mass spectrometry and 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At the end of the separation process of the five identified substances, only the two dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid and succinic acid, had a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory action on gastric acid output (76% and 70% of fermented glucose, respectively), but not on gastrin release. When given together, they increased gastric acid output by 100% of fermented glucose and by 95% of maximal acid output. We therefore conclude that maleic acid and succinic acid are the powerful stimulants of gastric acid output in fermented glucose and alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation, and that gastrin is not their mediator of action. (+info)
Inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with Helicobacter pylori.
Alcoholic beverages are known to have strong antibacterial activity. It is unclear, however, to what degree their consumption affects colonization of the human stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, a risk factor of various chronic diseases. The authors assessed the relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with H. pylori in a cross-sectional study among employees of a health insurance company and their household members (n = 425) in southern Germany. Quantitative information on alcohol consumption by beverage type and other factors that were known or suspected to be related to infection status was collected by a standardized questionnaire, and active infection was measured by the 13C-urea breath test. After control for confounding factors, there was a monotonic inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection (p for trend = 0.017). The odds ratio of infection among subjects who consumed more than 75 g of alcohol per week compared with subjects who did not drink alcohol was 0.31 (95 percent confidence interval 0.12-0.81). The inverse relation with H. pylori infection was stronger for alcohol consumed in the form of wine than for alcohol from beer. Notwithstanding its cross-sectional design, this study seems to support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, particularly wine consumption, may reduce the odds of active infection with H. pylori. (+info)
Reduced urination rate while drinking beer with an unpleasant taste and off-flavor.
A lowered subjective evaluation of the taste and flavor of beer due to staleness or to the addition of an unpleasant taste and flavor was found to be closely correlated with the urination rate. Beer in the same lot was compared immediately after shipment from the brewery and after leaving at room temperature for 1 month or 5 months. Each beer sample was given to volunteers at the rate of 3 ml/kg/15 min for 2 hours, and the urine volume was measured every 30 minutes. The urination rate was highest from the volunteers who drank fresh beer and lowest from those who drank 5-month-old beer. The subjective evaluation of both the taste and drinkability of 5-month-old beer was significantly lower than that of fresh beer. Beer samples with various unpleasant taste and flavor substances added lowered the urination rate. The results suggest that the perception of an unpleasant taste and off-flavor would lower the urination rate. (+info)
Does the concept of a standard drink apply to viticultural societies?
The use of standard drink units (SDUs) in the measurement of individual alcohol consumption has become widely popular in recent years. However, the ethanol content of drinks varies from country to country and is usually arrived at without scientific backing. The present study was designed to establish an SDU for a predominantly wine-drinking country (Spain). Two field studies were simultaneously conducted to gather data about home and public alcohol consumption in eight regions of the country with a total of 10751 subjects. The average alcohol content of a drink was very similar for wine and beer, whereas in the case of spirits it was almost double. Relevant differences were found across regions, drinking settings and city sizes. A Spanish SDU was set at 10 g of ethanol for wine and beer, with a measure of spirits accounting for two SDUs. The use of SDUs should be encouraged in primary health care settings. However, dispersion of data suggests that, when SDU is used as a screening tool, additional information should always be obtained in borderline cases. (+info)
Isolation from beer and structural determination of a potent stimulant of gastrin release.
Beer was subjected to five successive chromatographic procedures to isolate the gastrin release-inducing activity, guided by bioassay of the fractions in anaesthetized Donryu rats. The procedures were: (1) hydrophobic interaction chromatography (aqueous effluent with an HP20 column); (2) weak cation-exchange chromatography (1 M acetic acid eluate with a CM Sephadex C-25 column); (3) gel filtration (methanol eluate with a Sephadex LH-20 column); (4) same as (2); (5) high-performance liquid chromatography (YMC-Pack ODS-AM with 7% acetonitrile-0.01 M HCl). The active component finally isolated had a specific activity approximately 10000 times higher than that of beer. It was identified by means of mass, 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses as N-methyltyramine (NMT). The dose of NMT giving maximal gastrin-releasing activity was 25 microg/kg, and the 50% effective dose was approximately 10 microg/kg on oral administration to rats. NMT was isolated and identified as a gastrin release inducer in beer. Its concentration in beer is sufficient to account for most of the activity of beer. (+info)
Wine and good subjective health.
The association of subjective, self-rated suboptimal (average or poor) health with the intake of beer, wine, and liquor and alcohol intoxication was examined in a general population sample in Finland in 1992. The odds ratios were adjusted for several possible confounders with the use of logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects who drank no wine, suboptimal health was less frequent among both men and women who imbibed 1-4 drinks of wine, and more common among men who consumed > or = 10 drinks of wine or liquor. Moderate wine drinking seems to be related to good self-rated health. (+info)
Nutrient intake and use of beverages and the risk of kidney stones among male smokers.
High intakes of calcium, potassium, and fluids have been shown to be associated with lowered risk of kidney stones. The authors studied the associations between diet and risk of kidney stones in a cohort of 27,001 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially free of kidney stones. All men participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study and completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up (1985-1988), 329 men had been diagnosed with kidney stones. After data were controlled for possible confounders, the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest quartile of magnesium intake was 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.85) as compared with men in the lowest quartile. Intake of fiber was directly associated with risk (relative risk (RR) = 2.06, 95% CI 1.39-3.03). Calcium intake was not associated with the risk of kidney stones. Beer consumption was inversely associated with risk of kidney stones; each bottle of beer consumed per day was estimated to reduce risk by 40% (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47-0.76). In conclusion, the authors observed that magnesium intake and beer consumption were inversely associated and fiber intake was directly associated with risk of kidney stones. (+info)