A comparison of the reproductive physiology of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, collected from the Escambia and Blackwater Rivers in Florida.
Largemouth bass (LMB), Micropterus salmoides, were taken from the Escambia River (contaminated site) and the Blackwater River (reference site) near Pensacola, Florida. The Escambia River collection occurred downstream of the effluent from two identified point sources of pollution. These point sources included a coal-fired electric power plant and a chemical company. Conversely, the Blackwater River's headwaters and most of its length flow within a state park. Although there is some development on the lower part of the Blackwater River, fish were collected in the more pristine upper regions. Fish were captured by electroshocking and were maintained in aerated coolers. Physical measurements were obtained, blood was taken, and liver and gonads were removed. LMB plasma was assayed for the concentration of 17ss-estradiol (E2) and testosterone using validated radioimmunoassays. The presence of vitellogenin was determined by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody validated for largemouth bass vitellogenin. No differences in plasma concentrations of E2 or testosterone were observed in females from the two sites. Similarly, males exhibited no difference in plasma E2. However, plasma testosterone was lower in the males from the contaminated site, as compared to the reference site. Vitellogenic males occurred only at the contaminated site. Additionally, liver mass was proportionately higher in males from the contaminated site, as compared to males from the reference site. These data suggest that reproductive steroid levels may have been altered by increased hepatic enzyme activity, and the presence of vitellogenic males indicates that an exogenous source of estrogen was present in the Escambia River. (+info)
A monoclonal antibody against chorion proteins of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758): studies of chorion precursors and applicability in immunoassays.
The monoclonal antibody DLE7 was obtained against 44- to 50-kDa polypeptides solubilized from the vitelline envelope of the Mediterranean sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. In Western blot analysis of chorion lysates it recognized cross-reactive bands at 44 kDa, 48 kDa, and 110 kDa. Previous affinity blotting with concanavalin-A showed that most of solubilized bands were glycosylated. Enzymatic deglycosylation of chorion proteins followed by Western blot analysis with DLE7 showed that the 48-kDa and 110-kDa antigens were differentially affected by endoglycosidase-F treatment. When DLE7 was employed in immunofluorescence analysis, isolated chorions and ovarian cryosections stained intensely. Positivity was also observed in liver cryosections of spawning females but not in liver of males and nonspawning females. To study the origin and delivery of chorion proteins, DLE7 was used in Western blot analysis of liver homogenates and blood serum of spawning females. Cross-reacting bands were detected in liver (90 kDa) and serum (180 kDa, 50 kDa). DLE7 was also used for the first time to set up an indirect ELISA assay to detect egg antigens in the blood of egg-producing females, raising the possibility of using DLE7 as a female-specific marker of spawning for sea bass. (+info)
Regulation of Cl- secretion in seawater fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) gill respiratory cells in primary culture.
1. Primary cultures of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) gill cells grown on permeable membranes form a highly differentiated tight epithelium composed of respiratory-like cells. This preparation was also found to provide a functional model for investigating the hormonal regulation of Cl- secretion. 2. In control conditions, i.e. in the absence of hormones or other stimuli, the cultured epithelium showed a short-circuit current (Isc) of 8.8 +/- 0.4 microA cm-2, a transepithelial potential (Vt) of 28.6 +/- 0.6 mV (serosal side positive), and a transepithelial resistance (Rt) of 5026 +/- 127 Omega cm2. Addition of 50 nM PGE2 caused a stimulation of Isc, Vt and transepithelial conductance, Gt. The increase in Isc was probably due to the elevation in Cl- secretion, since it could be correlated with the stimulation of serosal to mucosal 36Cl- flux. Application of the neurohypophyseal peptide arginine vasotocin (AVT; 50 nM) or the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (isoprenaline; 0. 5 microM) evoked a stimulation in Cl- secretion, as was shown by the increases in Isc and Gt. The excitatory effect of isoproterenol followed by the inhibitory action of propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, suggested the presence of beta-adrenergic receptors. Noradrenaline (0.1 microM) elicited a reduction in Isc, Vt and Gt, which was counterbalanced by the addition of phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist. This suggested an activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors. 3. This study provides evidence for hormonal control of the Cl- secretion in sea bass gill respiratory cells in culture, involving AVT, prostaglandin (PGE2), and beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors. (+info)
Citrate ions enhance taste responses to amino acids in the largemouth bass.
The glossopharyngeal (IX) taste system of the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, is highly selective to amino acids and is poorly responsive to trisodium citrate; however, IX taste responses to specific concentrations of L- and D-arginine and L-lysine but not L-proline were enhanced by citrate but not sodium ions. Binary mixtures of L-arginine (3 x 10(-4)M and 10(-3)M) or D-arginine (10(-3)M) + trisodium citrate (10(-3)M; pH 7-9) resulted in enhanced taste activity, whereas binary mixtures of higher concentrations (10(-2)M and 10(-1)M) of L- or D-arginine + 10(-3)M trisodium citrate were not significantly different from the response to the amino acid alone. Under continuous adaptation to 10(-3)M citrate, taste responses to L-arginine were also enhanced at the identical concentrations previously indicated, but responses to 10(-2)M and 10(-1)M L-arginine were significantly suppressed. Under continuous adaptation to 10(-2)M L-arginine, taste responses to 10(-2)M, 10(-1)M, and 10(0) M citrate were significantly enhanced. Cellular concentrations of both citrate and amino acids in prey of the carnivorous largemouth bass are sufficient for this taste-enhancing effect to occur naturally during consummatory feeding behavior. Citrate acting as a calcium chelator is presented as a possible mechanism of action for the enhancement effect. (+info)
Comparative study of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected in different ways.
The transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated in juvenile sea bass (3 g) Dicentrarchus labrax by using cell culture supernatant (SSN-1 cell line) containing nodavirus. Five methods of infection were tested: intramuscular injection (IM), intraperitoneal injection (IP), oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation of healthy fish with infected fish. Some differences were observed in time of disease onset and severity of symptoms depending on the mode of infection used. Clinical symptoms such as whirling swimming and lethargic or hyperactive behaviour were generally reproduced, except for fish infected via oral and IP infection. First mortalities occurred 3 d after IM and IP infection and 6 d after for the other modes of infection. Cumulative mortalities were also variable: 100% after IM infection, 10% after IP infection, 32% for bath exposure, 43% after cohabitation and 24% via oral infection. Histopathologically, vacuolation was observed in the central nervous tissues and in the retina. The observed lesions were more or less severe depending on the mode of infection, the sampling time and the organs: lesions on the surviving fish (42 days post infection, d p.i.) seemed to be generally more conspicuous in the retina than in the brain of the same fish. In most cases, the presence of nodavirus was confirmed in the same samples of brain and retina by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was not detected in other organs examined. The present results suggest that 2 forms of VER can be induced: IM injection leads to an acute form (severe nervous disorders with high and fast mortality) whereas oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation induce a subacute form (less severe disorders and weak daily mortality). This experiment demonstrates experimentally induced horizontal transmission of VER in sea bass for the first time. (+info)
Anti-immunoglobulin antisera used in an ELISA to detect antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer to Cryptocaryon irritans.
Immunoglobulins (Ig) in serum from barramundi vaccinated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography using BSA as the ligand. The BSA-binding activity of eluted putative Ig fractions was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before being pooled and characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Double affinity purification did not improve the purity of the Ig preparation compared to single affinity purification. Barramundi Ig were injected into sheep to produce anti-Ig antisera which were assessed in an indirect ELISA as the secondary antibody to detect serum Ig in barramundi vaccinated with Cryptocaryon irritans theronts. Affinity-purified Ig induced a more specific reagent for use as secondary antibody in ELISA than did normal whole-barramundi sera. The heavy (H) chain of barramundi Ig had an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa while that of the light (L) chain was 27 kDa in SDS-PAGE studies. Under non-reducing conditions 2 putative populations of Ig were identified, at 768 and 210 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of the barramundi Ig H chain showed 78% homology with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ig H chain sequence. (+info)
Divalent cation selectivity is a function of gating in native and recombinant cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels from retinal photoreceptors.
The selectivity of Ca2+ over Na+ is approximately 3.3-fold larger in cGMP-gated channels of cone photoreceptors than in those of rods when measured under saturating cGMP concentrations, where the probability of channel opening is 85-90%. Under physiological conditions, however, the probability of opening of the cGMP-gated channels ranges from its largest value in darkness of 1-5% to essentially zero under continuous, bright illumination. We investigated the ion selectivity of cGMP-gated channels as a function of cyclic nucleotide concentration in membrane patches detached from the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors and have found that ion selectivity is linked to gating. We determined ion selectivity relative to Na+ (PX/PNa) from the value of reversal potentials measured under ion concentration gradients. The selectivity for Ca2+ over Na+ increases continuously as the probability of channel opening rises. The dependence of PCa/PNa on cGMP concentration, in both rods and cones, is well described by the same Hill function that describes the cGMP dependence of current amplitude. At the cytoplasmic cGMP concentrations expected in dark-adapted intact photoreceptors, PCa/PNa in cone channels is approximately 7.4-fold greater than that in rods. The linkage between selectivity and gating is specific for divalent cations. The selectivity of Ca2+ and Sr2+ changes with cGMP concentration, but the selectivity of inorganic monovalent cations, Cs+ and NH4+, and organic cations, methylammonium+ and dimethylammonium+, is invariant with cGMP. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in rod photoreceptors are heteromeric assemblies of alpha and beta subunits. The maximal PCa/PNa of channels formed from alpha subunits of bovine rod channels is less than that of heteromeric channels formed from alpha and beta subunits. In addition, Ca2+ is a more effective blocker of channels formed by alpha subunits than of channels formed by alpha and beta subunits. The cGMP-dependent shift in divalent cation selectivity is a property of alphabeta channels and not of channels formed from alpha subunits alone. (+info)
High dietary lipid levels enhance digestive tract maturation and improve dicentrarchus labrax larval development.
This study was designed to determine the nutritional lipid requirement of seabass larvae and to understand the effects of dietary fat concentration on their digestive tract maturation. Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae were fed, from d 15 to 38 of life, one of five isonitrogenous compound diets with different lipid levels, ranging from 10 to 30 g/100 g. The higher the lipid level, the greater the growth and survival of the larvae (P < 0.05). The lipolytic enzymes assayed, lipase and phospholipase A2, were stimulated by the increase in their respective dietary substrates, triglycerides and phospholipids, in 38-d-old larvae (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, a plateau in the activity of these two lipolytic enzymes was observed from 20% dietary lipids onwards. The similar mRNA levels of phospholipase A2 in the three groups fed the highest lipid levels suggested that the maximal synthesis level of lipolytic enzyme was reached at 20% dietary fat. Pancreatic secretion of trypsin and amylase were positively affected by the dietary lipid level; a possible involvement of a cholecystokinin-releasing factor is discussed. Diets containing >20% lipids led to the increase in activities of brush border membrane enzymes to the detriment of a cytosolic enzyme in enterocytes, leucine-alanine (Leu-Ala) peptidase. This enzymatic change reveals the earlier maturation of enterocytes in larva groups fed high lipid levels. (+info)