The role of the basophils in acute serum sickness of rabbits was examined by monitoring daily the absolute number of basophils before, during and after the disease period. After antigen (bovine serum albumin, BSA) elimination, levels of serum IgE and in vitro basophil degranulation in the presence of BSA were determined. The results showed that the onset of glomerular lesions depends upon the simultaneous occurrence of circulating immune complexes greater than 19 S and of an in vivo basophil depletion--probably equivalent to degranulation--reaching 70% of the pre-disease number. Post-disease antigen-dependent in vitro degranulation of the basophils and levels of serum IgE anti BSA did not prove to be good indexes of basophil sensitization. Our data suggest that basophils are instrumental at early stages of the deposition of immune complexes, most probably through their sensitization by membrane-bound IgE antibodies. (+info)
(2/982) Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by expression of CD63 antigen using a tricolour flow cytometric method.
In the field of allergy diagnosis, most in vitro functional tests are focused on basophils. Nevertheless, the very small number of circulating basophils limits these experiments and their clinical benefit remains controversial. As flow cytometry is a valuable tool for identifying cell populations, even at low concentrations, we developed a tricolour flow cytometric method for the study of allergen-induced basophil activation. Identification of cells was based both on CD45 expression and on the presence of IgE on the cell surface, since basophils express high-affinity receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RI). Cell activation upon allergen challenge was assessed by the expression of CD63 antigen on the plasma membrane. Basophil isolation and activation (with the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) were validated in 32 non-allergic patients. In 12 allergic patients, basophil stimulation by a relevant allergen was in most cases positive (10/12). Furthermore a concentration-dependent hook effect was observed. Of the allergic and non-allergic patients, none showed non-specific activation with an irrelevant allergen (specificity 100%). Overall, our preliminary results, even in a small population, suggest that this is a reliable and valuable method for the diagnosis of allergies complementing specific allergen IgE and skin test results. Obviously, additional clinical studies are needed to validate these first results. (+info)
(3/982) Extracellular signal-regulated kinases regulate leukotriene C4 generation, but not histamine release or IL-4 production from human basophils.
Human basophils secrete histamine and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in response to various stimuli, such as Ag and the bacterial product, FMLP. IgE-mediated stimulation also results in IL-4 secretion. However, the mechanisms of these three classes of secretion are unknown in human basophils. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs; ERK-1 and ERK-2) during IgE- and FMLP-mediated stimulation of human basophils was examined. Following FMLP stimulation, histamine release preceded phosphorylation of ERKs, whereas phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and arachidonic acid (AA) and LTC4 release followed phosphorylation of ERKs. The phosphorylation of ERKs was transient, decreasing to baseline levels after 15 min. PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of ERKs and cPLA2 without inhibition of several other tyrosine phosphorylation events, including phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. PD98059 also inhibited LTC4 generation (IC50 = approximately 2 microM), but not histamine release. Stimulation with anti-IgE Ab resulted in the phosphorylation of ERKs, which was kinetically similar to both histamine and LTC4 release and decreased toward resting levels by 30 min. Similar to FMLP, PD98059 inhibited anti-IgE-mediated LTC4 release (IC50, approximately 2 microM), with only a modest effect on histamine release and IL-4 production at higher concentrations. Taken together, these results suggest that ERKs might selectively regulate the pathway leading to LTC4 generation by phosphorylating cPLA2, but not histamine release or IL-4 production, in human basophils. (+info)
(4/982) Down-regulation of human basophil IgE and FC epsilon RI alpha surface densities and mediator release by anti-IgE-infusions is reversible in vitro and in vivo.
Previously, infusions of an anti-IgE mAb (rhumAb-E25) in subjects decreased serum IgE levels, basophil IgE and FcepsilonRIalpha surface density, and polyclonal anti-IgE and Ag-induced basophil histamine release responses. We hypothesized that these effects would be reversed in vivo by discontinuation of infusions and in vitro by exposing basophils to IgE. Subjects received rhumAb-E25 biweekly for 46 wk. Blood samples taken 0-52 wk after rhumAb-E25 were analyzed for serum IgE and basophil expression of IgE, FcepsilonRIalpha, and CD32. Basophil numbers were unaffected by infusions. Eight weeks after infusions, free IgE levels rose in vivo but did not reach baseline. Basophil IgE and FcepsilonRIalpha rose in parallel with free IgE while CD32 was stable. FcepsilonRI densities, measured by acid elution, returned to 80% of baseline, whereas histamine release responses returned to baseline. Basophils cultured with or without IgE or IgG were analyzed for expression of IgE, FcepsilonRIalpha, and CD32. By 7 days with IgE, expression of IgE and FcepsilonRIalpha rose significantly, whereas cultures without IgE declined. IgE culture did not effect CD32. IgG culture did not effect expression of any marker. The present results strongly suggest that free IgE levels regulate FcepsilonRIalpha expression on basophils. (+info)
(5/982) Adhesive explant culture of allergic nasal mucosa: effect of emedastine difumarate, an anti-allergic drug.
Allergic reaction of the nose comprises of an immediate and a late reaction. To evaluate nasal allergic reactions, many experiments have been performed by investigators. In this study, we performed a new tissue culture technique (adhesive explant culture) to analyze the migration of cells into the culture medium from the cultured allergic nasal mucosa in response to an allergen. Basophilic cells (mast cells and basophils) and eosinophils, which were released into the culture medium after the allergen challenge, were evaluated by the analysis of histamine and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) content in the culture medium. Histamine and basophilic cells in the culture medium were more abundant in the immediate phase (within 30 min) after challenge than in the late phase (from 30 min to 10 hr). On the other hand, ECP and eosinophils in the culture medium were more abundant in the late phase than in the immediate phase. The increase of histamine content in both phases were not inhibited by pre-treatment of emedastine difumarate (EME), an anti-allergic drug. However, the increase of ECP in the late phase was inhibited by pre-treatment with EME. Moreover, the number of EG2-positive cells was also decreased by pre-treatment with EME. These results suggest that EME might lower the activation of eosinophils in the late phase of the allergic reaction. The present study also indicates that this adhesive explant culture system is useful model for studying the cellular allergic responses to drugs ex vivo. (+info)
(6/982) The effect of processing on inflammatory markers in induced sputum.
The effects of the mucolytic agent, dithioerythritol (DTE), and the temperature at which sputum processing is conducted on cellular and biochemical markers in induced sputum was assessed. Samples from healthy and atopic asthmatic subjects were treated with either DTE or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 22 or 37 degrees C and compared for cell counts and concentrations of histamine, tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), free interleukin (IL)-8, immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IL-8/IgA complexes and secretory component (SC). In addition, the influence of DTE on in vitro mediator release from blood eosinophils, basophils and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) mast cells was studied. Processing with DTE improved cytospin quality and increased the cell yield and measurable ECP, tryptase, IgA and SC, but reduced levels of histamine in PBS-treated samples and had no effect on IL-8. Cell counts or mediator levels were similar when sputum was processed at 22 or 37 degrees C, even though DTE induced blood basophils and BAL mast cells to release histamine at 37 degrees C. In spiking experiments, recovery of added ECP, tryptase, total IL-8 and histamine from sputum was similar in DTE- and PBS-processed sputum, but reduced for free IL-8 in PBS-treated samples. In conclusion, dithioerythritol improves cell and mediator recovery without causing cell activation when sputum processing is conducted at room temperature. The extent of recovery depends on the mediator studied. (+info)
(7/982) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 cause basophil histamine release by a common pathway: downregulation by sodium.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) are recognized as enhancers, but not as inducers, of histamine release from normal human basophils. However, when extracellular Na+ is removed IL-3 acquires the capacity to induce histamine release. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether GM-CSF can induce basophil histamine release using the same pathway of IL-3. Leucocyte suspensions from normal human subjects were stimulated with GM-CSF, IL-3 and anti-IgE, and histamine release was evaluated by an automated fluorometric method. In a physiological medium, GM-CSF (10 ng/ml) and IL-3 (10 ng/ml) did not provoke histamine release, in spite of an efficient response to anti-IgE (10 micrograms/ml). However, when extracellular Na+ was substituted iso-osmotically with N-methyl-d-glucamine+ or with choline+, GM-CSF and IL-3 were able to trigger histamine release from either mixed leucocyte suspensions or purified human basophils. The effect of GM-CSF on basophil histamine release was dose dependent, with optimal release at a dose of 1 ng/ml after incubation at 37 degrees for 60-120 min. The kinetics of IL-3-induced histamine release were similar, whereas anti-IgE-induced histamine release was more rapid, being almost maximal after incubation for 30 min. A good correlation was found between GM-CSF-induced and IL-3-induced histamine release; furthermore, the combined effects of the two cytokines were less than additive, suggesting that they share the same pathways leading to histamine release. When extracellular Na+ concentration was increased from 0 to 140 mm, histamine release induced by GM-CSF, IL-3 and anti-IgE was reduced progressively. In contrast, histamine release induced by these stimuli was upregulated when the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ was increased. These results provide indirect evidence that GM-CSF and IL-3 can induce basophil histamine release by a common pathway that is downregulated by Na+. (+info)
(8/982) Characterization of mast cell-committed progenitors present in human umbilical cord blood.
Human mast cells are derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic cells present in cord blood, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. However, little is known about the properties of the CD34(+) cells. We demonstrated here that mast cell progenitors that have distinct phenotypes from other hematopoietic cell types are present in cord blood by culturing single, sorted CD34(+) cells in 96-well plates or unsorted cells in methylcellulose. The CD34(+) mast cell-committed progenitors often expressed CD38 and often lacked HLA-DR, whereas CD34(+) erythroid progenitors often expressed both CD38 and HLA-DR and CD34(+) granulocyte-macrophage progenitors often had CD33 and sometimes expressed CD38. We then cultured single cord blood-derived CD34(+)CD38(+) cells under conditions optimal for mast cells and three types of myeloid cells, ie, basophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Of 1,200 CD34(+)CD38(+) cells, we were able to detect 13 pure mast cell colonies and 52 pure colonies consisting of either one of these three myeloid cell types. We found 17 colonies consisting of two of the three myeloid cell types, whereas only one colony consisted of mast cells and another cell type. These results indicate that human mast cells develop from progenitors that have unique phenotypes and that committed mast cell progenitors develop from multipotent hematopoietic cells through a pathway distinct from myeloid lineages including basophils, which have many similarities to mast cells. (+info)