Dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle and sports activity.
The study objectives were to examine the dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle in athletes, and investigate its association with participation in sport. The study comprised 168 active competitive non-pregnant athletes, aged 14-24 years. The dynamic strength of their quadriceps muscle was measured, and they answered a questionnaire about sports activity and occupation. The dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle was significantly higher in men than in women, and was positively associated with body weight, years of jogging, years of soccer, and weekly hours of basketball. In conclusion, the dynamic strength of the quadriceps muscle seems to be associated with sports activity. The results suggest sport specific adaptation, which may reflect high levels of running and jumping activity. (+info)
Medial subtalar dislocation.
We report a medial subtalar dislocation without fracture in an eighteen year old male injured during basketball game. He was successfully treated with closed reduction and cast immobilization. At one year follow-up he was symptomless. (+info)
Does pulsed low intensity ultrasound allow early return to normal activities when treating stress fractures? A review of one tarsal navicular and eight tibial stress fractures.
We sought to evaluate the efficacy of daily pulsed low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) with early return to activities for the treatment of lower extremity stress fractures. Eight patients (2 males, 6 females) with radiographic and bone scan confirmed tibial stress fractures participated in this study. Additionally, a case report of a tarsal navicular stress fracture is described. All patients except one were involved in athletics. Prior to the study, subjects completed a 5 question, 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) regarding pain level (10 = extreme pain, 1 = no pain) and were assessed for functional performance. Subjects received 20-minute LIUS treatments 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects maintained all functional activities during the treatment period. Seven patients with posterior-medial stress fractures participated without a brace. Subjects were re-tested after 4 weeks of treatment. Mann-Whitney U tests (VAS data) and paired t-tests (functional tests) assessed statistical significance (p<0.05). Although the intensity of practice was diminished in some instances, no time off from competitive sports was prescribed for the patients with the tibial stress fractures. The patient with the anterior tibial stress fracture underwent tibial intramedullary nailing at the conclusion of a season of play. In this uncontrolled experience, treatment of tibial stress fractures with daily pulsed LIUS was effective in pain relief and early return to vigorous activity without bracing for the patients with posterior-medial stress fractures. (+info)
Sport, age, and sex specific incidence of sports injuries in Western Australia.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in recreational sports injury in Perth, Western Australia. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of sports injuries during the 1997 winter season (May to September). SETTING: Sample of Australian football, field hockey, basketball, and netball players from the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. METHODS: A cohort of sports participants was followed over the five month winter sports season. Before the season, participants completed a baseline questionnaire and during the season were interviewed every four weeks by telephone. RESULTS: Overall, 92% of participants (n = 1391) who completed a baseline questionnaire completed at least one follow up telephone interview. About half (51%) of the cohort sustained one or more injuries during the winter season accounting for a total of 1034 injuries. Most injuries were of moderate (58%, n = 598) or minor (40%, n = 412) severity, with only 3% (n = 24) requiring emergency department treatment or a hospital stay. The injury incidence rate was greatest for football (20.3/1000 hours of participation), similar for field hockey and basketball (15.2/1000 hours and 15.1/1000 hours respectively), and lowest for netball (12.1/1000 hours). The incidence of injury was greatest in the first four weeks of the season, and participants aged between 26 and 30 years had about a 55% greater risk of injury than those aged less than 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to show that recreational sports are safe. Although the likelihood of injury was greatest in the first month of the season, few injuries required admission to hospital or emergency department treatment. A greater emphasis on prevention in the early part of the season should help to reduce the elevated incidence of injury found at this time. (+info)
An application of the matching law to evaluate the allocation of two- and three-point shots by college basketball players.
We applied the matching equation to evaluate the allocation of two- and three-point shots by male and female college basketball players from a large Division 1 university. The matching law predicts that the proportion of shots taken from three-point range should match the proportional reinforcement rate produced by such shots. Thus, we compared the proportion of three-point shots taken relative to all shots to the proportion of three-point shots scored relative to all shots scored. However, the matching equation was adjusted to account for the greater reinforcer magnitude of the three-point basket (i.e., 1.5 times greater than the two-point basket reinforcer magnitude). For players with substantial playing time, results showed that the overall distribution of two- and three-point shots was predicted by the matching equation. Game-by-game shot distribution was variable, but the cumulative proportion of shots taken from three-point range as the season progressed was predicted almost perfectly on a player-by-player basis for both male and female basketball players. (+info)
Prospective imaging study of asymptomatic patellar tendinopathy in elite junior basketball players.
To evaluate the ability of ultrasonography to predict eventual symptoms in an at-risk population, 52 elite junior basketball players' patellar tendons were studied at baseline and again 16 months later. The group consisted of 10 study tendons (ultrasonographically hypoechoic at baseline) and 42 control tendons (ultrasonographically normal at baseline). By design, all tendons were asymptomatic at baseline. No differences were noted between subjects and controls at baseline for age, height, weight, training hours, and vertical jump. Functional (P < 0.01) and symptomatic outcome (P < 0.05) were poorer for subjects' tendons than for controls. Relative risk for developing symptoms of jumper's knee was 4.2 times greater in case tendons than in control tendons. Men were more likely to develop ultrasonographic changes than women (P < 0.025), and they also had significantly increased training hours per week (P < 0.01) in the study period. Half (50%) of abnormal tendons in women became ultrasonographically normal in the study period. Our data suggest that presence of an ultrasonographic hypoechoic area is associated with a greater risk of developing jumper's knee symptoms. Ultrasonographic patellar tendon changes may resolve, but this is not necessary for an athlete to become asymptomatic. Qualitative or quantitative analysis of baseline ultrasonographic images revealed it was not possible to predict which tendons would develop symptoms or resolve ultrasonographically. (+info)
Survival of an aortic trauma patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: a case report.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is the most lethal variant of that illness and is associated with fatal large vessel arterial hemorrhages. The literature reports only two survivors of elective aortic surgery and two survivors of spontaneous aortic hemorrhage. This article presents a 14-year-old boy who had aortic and vena cava blunt trauma and survived. (+info)
Reproducibility and clinical utility of tendon palpation to detect patellar tendinopathy in young basketball players. Victorian Institute of Sport tendon study group.
BACKGROUND: Palpation is an important clinical test for jumper's knee. OBJECTIVES: To (a) test the reproducibility of palpation tenderness, (b) evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of palpation in subjects with clinical symptoms of jumper's knee, and (c) determine whether tenderness to palpation may serve as a useful screening test for patellar tendinopathy. The yardstick for diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy was ultrasonographic abnormality. METHODS: In 326 junior symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes' tendons, palpation was performed by a single examiner before ultrasonographic examination by a certified ultrasound radiologist. In 58 tendons, palpation was performed twice to test reliability. Tenderness to palpation was scored on a scale from 0 to 3 where 0 represented no pain, and 1, 2, and 3 represented mild, moderate, and severe tenderness respectively. RESULTS: Patellar tendon palpation was a reliable examination for a single examiner (Pearson r = 0.82). In symptomatic tendons, the positive predictive value of palpation was 68%. As a screening examination in asymptomatic subjects, the positive predictive value of tendon palpation was 36-38%. Moderate and severe palpation tenderness were better predictors of ultrasonographic tendon pathology than absent or mild tenderness (p<0.001). Tender and symptomatic tendons were more likely to have ultrasound abnormality than tenderness alone (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this age group, palpation is a reliable test but it is not cost effective in detecting patellar tendinopathy in a preparticipation examination. In symptomatic tendons, palpation is a moderately sensitive but not specific test. Mild tenderness in the patellar tendons in asymptomatic jumping athletes should be considered normal. (+info)