The Health Sciences and Human Services Library: "this is one sweet library".
The opening of the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in April, 1998, was a highly anticipated event. With its unique architecture and stunning interior features, it is a signature building for the university in downtown Baltimore. The building is equipped with state-of-the-art technology, but has a warm, inviting atmosphere making it a focal point for the campus community. Its highly functional, flexible design will serve the staff and users well into the twenty-first century. (+info)
Severe respiratory syncytial virus disease in Alaska native children. RSV Alaska Study Group.
Hospitalization rates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection range from 1 to 20/1000 infants. To determine the rate and severity of RSV infections requiring hospitalization for infants in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) Delta of Alaska, a 3-year prospective surveillance study was conducted. The annual rate of RSV hospitalization for YK Delta infants <1 year of age was 53-249/1000. RSV infection was the most frequent cause of infant hospitalization. RSV disease severity did not differ among non-high-risk infants in the YK Delta and at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH). On average, 1/125 infants born in the YK Delta required mechanical ventilation for RSV infection. During the peak season, approximately $1034/child <3 years of age was spent on RSV hospitalization in the YK Delta. In YK Delta infants +info)
Lower body osteoarticular pain and dose of analgesic medications in older disabled women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed use and dosage of analgesic medications in relation to severity of osteoarticular pain. METHODS: The type and dose of analgesic medication and the severity of pain in the lower back, hips, knees, or feet of 1002 older disabled women were assessed. RESULTS: Severe pain and the use of analgesic medications were reported by 48.5% and 78.8% of women, respectively. Among those who had severe pain, 41.2% were using less than 20% of the maximum analgesic dose. Overall, 6.6% of women were using more than 100% of the maximum dose. CONCLUSIONS: Severe pain is common. Additional, more effective, and safe analgesic treatments are needed for controlling pain in older persons. (+info)
Back injury in municipal workers: a case-control study.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with acute low back injury among municipal employees of a large city. METHODS: For each of 200 injured case patients, 2 coworker controls were randomly selected, the first matched on gender, job, and department and the second matched on gender and job classification. In-person interviews were conducted to collect data on demographics, work history, work characteristics, work injuries, back pain, psychosocial and work organization, health behaviors, and anthropometric and ergonomic factors related to the job. Psychosocial work organization variables were examined with factor analysis techniques; an aggregate value for job strain was entered into the final model. Risk factors were examined via multivariate logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: High job strain was the most important factor affecting back injury (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 3.52), and it showed a significant dose-response effect. Body mass index (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.18) and a work movement index (twisting, extended reaching, and stooping) (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.08) were also significant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increasing workers' control over their jobs reduces levels of job strain. Ergonomic strategies and worksite health promotion may help reduce other risk factors. (+info)
Serologic evidence of rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari) infection among intravenous drug users in inner-city Baltimore, Maryland.
We tested single serum samples from 631 intravenous (i.v.) drug users from inner-city Baltimore, Maryland for serologic evidence of exposure to spotted fever group rickettsiae. A total of 102 (16%) individuals had titers > or = 64 to Rickettsia rickettsii by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Confirmation that infection was caused by R. akari was obtained by cross-adsorption studies on a subset of serum samples that consistently resulted in higher titers to R. akari than to R. rickettsii. Current i.v. drug use, increased frequency of injection, and shooting gallery use were significant risk factors for presence of group-specific antibodies reactive with R. rickettsii. There was a significant inverse association with the presence of antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii and antibodies reactive to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study suggests that i.v. drug users are at an increased risk for R. akari infections. Clinicians should be aware of rickettsialpox, as well as other zoonotic diseases of the urban environment, when treating i.v. drug users for any acute febrile illness of undetermined etiology. (+info)
A comprehensive plan for managed care of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Medicaid is rapidly moving toward managed care throughout the United States and will have a major impact on care programs for those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The experience at the Johns Hopkins HIV Care Service is an example of the transition from fee-for-service to managed care. The Maryland Medicaid program, which has required enrollment of all Medicaid recipients since June 1997, uses an adjusted payment rate and separately funds protease inhibitors. Elements that made the transition to a managed care organization possible included the early development of a comprehensive network of services and a database showing that historical Medicaid payments were low compared with the statewide experience. Our Medicaid managed care program promotes unlimited access to specialists, rejects the "gatekeeper" concept for any service, and includes an open formulary. Nevertheless, it is uncertain that the services now provided can be sustained with anticipated reductions in payments that seem inevitable with Medicaid policies here and nationally. (+info)
Longitudinal change in height of men and women: implications for interpretation of the body mass index: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
Age differences in height derived from cross-sectional studies can be the result of differential secular influences among the age cohorts. To determine the magnitude of height loss that accompanies aging, longitudinal studies are required. The authors studied 2,084 men and women aged 17-94 years enrolled from 1958 to 1993 in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, Baltimore, Maryland. On average, men's height was measured nine times during 15 years and women's height five times during 9 years. The rate of decrease in height was greater for women than for men. For both sexes, height loss began at about age 30 years and accelerated with increasing age. Cumulative height loss from age 30 to 70 years averaged about 3 cm for men and 5 cm for women; by age 80 years, it increased to 5 cm for men and 8 cm for women. This degree of height loss would account for an "artifactual" increase in body mass index of approximately 0.7 kg/m2 for men and 1.6 kg/m2 for women by age 70 years that increases to 1.4 and 2.6 kg/m2, respectively, by age 80 years. True height loss with aging must be taken into account when height (or indexes based on height) is used in physiologic or clinical studies. (+info)
Innovative methods for monitoring perinatal health outcomes in cities and in smaller geographic areas.
OBJECTIVES: Monitoring health in small localities such as cities or local communities is important, because rates of adverse outcomes often vary widely by geographic area. This article explores the utility of CUSUM (cumulative summation), a method developed and refined in industry, for monitoring health outcomes in cities and smaller geographic areas. METHODS: CUSUM monitoring methods were applied to rates of late or no prenatal care initiation and very low birthweight for the city of Baltimore as a whole and for a cluster of high-risk areas within the city. The performance of supplementary runs criteria was also assessed. The ability of both methods to flag significant increases or decreases in prenatal care initiation and very low birthweight rates was assessed. RESULTS: CUSUM and runs criteria detected most significant rate changes. The 2 methods performed better in regard to outcomes with higher prevalence and in larger geographic areas. CONCLUSIONS: CUSUM methods are convenient and reliable for use in the monitoring of moderately low prevalence outcomes in small geographic areas. Future research should examine their applicability to other health outcomes and further refine these methods, especially for rarer outcomes. (+info)