(1/843) The in-vitro activity of linezolid (U-100766) and tentative breakpoints.
The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities. (+info)
(2/843) Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro.
BACKGROUND: Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. AIMS: To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. METHODS: For resistance (R) measurements, colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers was exposed to luminal or serosal BFT-2 (1.25-10 nM) and after four hours morphological damage was measured on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using morphometry. F actin distribution was assessed using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Serosal BFT-2 for four hours was four-, two-, seven-, and threefold more potent than luminal BFT-2 in decreasing resistance, increasing epithelial 3H-mannitol permeability, and damaging crypt and surface colonocytes, respectively (p<0.05). Confocal microscopy showed reduced colonocyte F actin staining intensity after exposure to BFT-2. CONCLUSIONS: BFT-2 increases human colonic permeability and damages human colonic epithelial cells in vitro. These effects may be important in the development of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation caused by B fragilis in vivo. (+info)
(3/843) Microbiological and inflammatory effects of murine recombinant interleukin-10 in two models of polymicrobial peritonitis in rats.
A protective effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10) against the development of lethal shock has been demonstrated in various animal models. In contrast, the immunosuppressant properties of this mediator have been minimally evaluated in low-mortality models of infections. The clinical, microbiological, and inflammatory effects of murine recombinant IL-10 (mrIL-10) therapy were evaluated in two models of peritonitis in rats, which differed in the degree of severity of peritoneal inflammation 3 days after inoculation of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis with or without Enterococcus faecalis. The severity of the disease remained unchanged compared to that in control animals. A dose-related decrease in the peritoneal phagocyte count was observed in the treated groups compared to the counts in control animals. The subsequent experiments were performed exclusively in the mixed gram-positive-gram negative model, which exhibits an intense and prolonged inflammatory response with similar criteria. The early effects of mrIL-10 (evaluated 6 h after inoculation), repeated injections of mrIL-10 (four doses injected from 0 to 9 h after bacterial challenge), and pretreatment (two doses injected 6 and 3 h before inoculation) were evaluated. The clinical and microbiological parameters remained unchanged in the treated animals. Decreases in the peritoneal phagocyte count and the peritoneal concentration of tumor necrosis factor were observed following repeated injections of mrIL-10. In summary, our data suggest that mrIL-10 does not worsen the manifestations of sepsis. However, these results need to be confirmed in clinical practice. (+info)
(4/843) Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms in Korea.
Antimicrobial resistance patterns of 913 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms were monitored during an 8-year period in Korea. In general the resistance rates of the non-fragilis B. fragilis group species were higher than those of B. fragilis for all the drugs tested. The rate of resistance to clindamycin remarkably increased and those to some beta-lactam drugs such as piperacillin and cefotaxime also increased. No isolates were found to be resistant to imipenem, metronidazole, or chloramphenicol. beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and cefoxitin were more active than the other beta-lactams. Therefore, these agents may be considered when empirical selection of antimicrobial agents is required to treat severe anaerobic infections. (+info)
(5/843) Diversity of bacteroides fragilis strains in their capacity to recover phages from human and animal wastes and from fecally polluted wastewater.
Great differences in capability to detect bacteriophages from urban sewage of the area of Barcelona existed among 115 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The capability of six of the strains to detect phages in a variety of feces and wastewater was studied. Strains HSP40 and RYC4023 detected similar numbers of phages in urban sewage and did not detect phages in animal feces. The other four strains detected phages in the feces of different animal species and in wastewater of both human and animal origin. Strain RYC2056 recovered consistently higher counts than the other strains and also detected counts ranging from 10(1) to approximately 10(3) phages per ml in urban sewage from different geographical areas. This strain detected bacteriophages in animal feces even though their relative concentration with respect to the other fecal indicators was significantly lower in wastewater polluted with animal feces than in urban sewage. (+info)
(6/843) Bacteroides fragilis transfer factor Tn5520: the smallest bacterial mobilizable transposon containing single integrase and mobilization genes that function in Escherichia coli.
Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400DeltaBglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli. (+info)
(7/843) TNF-binding protein ameliorates inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during sepsis.
We examined the effects of TNF-binding protein (TNFBP) on regulatory mechanisms of muscle protein synthesis during sepsis in four groups of rats: Control; Control+TNFBP; Septic; and Septic+TNFBP. Saline (1. 0 ml) or TNFBP (1 mg/kg, 1.0 ml) was injected daily starting 4 h before the induction of sepsis. The effect of TNFBP on gastrocnemius weight, protein content, and the rate of protein synthesis was examined 5 days later. Sepsis reduced the rate of protein synthesis by 35% relative to controls by depressing translational efficiency. Decreases in protein synthesis were accompanied by similar reductions in protein content and muscle weight. Treatment of septic animals with TNFBP for 5 days prevented the sepsis-induced inhibition of protein synthesis and restored translational efficiency to control values. TNFBP treatment of Control rats for 5 days was without effect on muscle protein content or protein synthesis. We also assessed potential mechanisms regulating translational efficiency. The phosphorylation state of p70(S6) kinase was not altered by sepsis. Sepsis reduced the gastrocnemius content of eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bepsilon (eIF2Bepsilon), but not eIF2alpha. The decrease in eIF2Bepsilon content was prevented by treatment of septic rats with TNFBP. TNFBP ameliorates the sepsis-induced changes in protein metabolism in gastrocnemius, indicating a role for TNF in the septic process. The data suggest that TNF may impair muscle protein synthesis by reducing expression of specific initiation factors during sepsis. (+info)
(8/843) Structural consequences of the active site substitution Cys181 ==> Ser in metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis.
The metallo-beta-lactamases require divalent cations such as zinc or cadmium for hydrolyzing the amide bond of beta-lactam antibiotics. The crystal structure of the Zn2+ -bound enzyme from Bacteroides fragilis contains a binuclear zinc center in the active site. A hydroxide, coordinated to both zinc atoms, is proposed as the moiety that mounts the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon atom of the beta-lactam bond of the substrate. It was previously reported that the replacement of the active site Cys181 by a serine residue severely impaired catalysis while atomic absorption measurements indicated that binding of the two zinc ions remained intact. Contradicting data emerge from recent mass spectrometry results, which show that only a single zinc ion binds to the C181S metallo-beta-lactamase. In the current study, the C181S mutant enzyme was examined at the atomic level by determining the crystal structure at 2.6 A resolution. The overall structure of the mutant enzyme is the same as that of the wild-type enzyme. At the mutation site, the side chain of Ser181 occupies the same position as that of the side chain of Cys181 in the wild-type protein. One zinc ion, Zn1, is present in the crystal structure; however, the site of the second zinc ion, Zn2 is unoccupied. A water molecule is associated with Zn1, reminiscent of the hydroxide seen in the structure of the wild-type enzyme but farther from the metal. The position of the water molecule is off the plane of the carboxylate group of Asp103; therefore, the water molecule may be less nucleophilic than a water molecule which is coplanar with the carboxylate group. (+info)