The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora.
The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel. (+info)
Simultaneous detection of Bacteroides forsythus and Prevotella intermedia by 16S rRNA gene-directed multiplex PCR.
In a 16S rRNA gene-directed multiplex PCR, Prevotella intermedia- and Bacteroides forsythus-specific reverse primers were combined with a single conserved forward primer. A 660-bp fragment and an 840-bp fragment that were specific for both species could be amplified simultaneously. A total of 152 clinical samples, subgingival plaque and swabs of three different oral mucosae, from 38 periodontitis patients were used for the evaluation. (+info)
Characterization of bacteroides melaninogenicus.
Fifty-eight human isolates of Bacteroides melaninogenicus, 42 from a variety of clinical infections and the rest from normal flora, were studied for pigment production and ultraviolet light fluorescence and by forty biochemical and other tests, including end-product analysis by gas-liquid chromatography. In a number of instances, tests were repeated several times and the results were reproducible. Agar plate dilution susceptibility tests were also performed to 12 antimicrobial agents. These 58 strains could be reliably placed into three groups, corresponding to the three subspecies described, based on seven characteristics. These included acid production in peptone-yeast-glucose medium, production of n-butyric acid from peptone-yeast-glucose medium, esculin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, indole production, effect on milk, and lipase production. Production of hydrogen gas in peptone-yeast-fructose medium may be another distinguishing characteristic. In general there was not much difference in the susceptibility of the three groups to the various antimicrobial agents tested. Two strains had a minimal inhibitory concentration of penicillin G of 16 and 32 U/ml, respectively. Three strains did not produce a black pigment in spite of prolonged incubation on blood-containing media. (+info)
Phylogenetic position of Chitinophaga pinensis in the Flexibacter-Bacteroides-Cytophaga phylum.
Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for Chitinophaga pinensis showed that this species is most closely related to Flexibacter filiformis in the Flexibacter-Bacteroides-Cytophaga phylum. These two chitinolytic bacteria, which are characterized by transformation into spherical bodies on ageing, belong to a strongly supported lineage that also includes Cytophaga arvensicola, Flavobacterium ferrugineum and Flexibacter sancti. The lineage is distinct from the microcyst-forming species Sporocytophaga myxococcoides. (+info)
T cell specificity and cross reactivity towards enterobacteria, bacteroides, bifidobacterium, and antigens from resident intestinal flora in humans.
BACKGROUND: T cell responses to normal intestinal bacteria or their products may be important in the immunopathogenesis of chronic enterocolitis. AIMS: To investigate the T cell specificity and cross reactivity towards intestinal bacteria. PATIENTS/METHODS: T cell clones were isolated with phytohaemagglutinin from peripheral blood and biopsy specimens of inflamed and non-inflamed colon from five patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and two controls. T cell clones were restimulated with anaerobic Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria species, enterobacteria, and direct isolates of aerobic intestinal flora. T cell phenotype was analysed by single-cell immunocyte assay. RESULTS: Analysis of 96 T cell clones isolated from peripheral blood and biopsy specimens from two patients with IBD showed that both Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species specifically stimulate proliferation of CD4+TCRalphabeta+ T cell clones from both sites and that cross reactivity exists between these anaerobic bacteria and different enterobacteria. Analysis of 210 T cell clones isolated from three patients with IBD and two controls showed that indigenous aerobic flora specifically stimulate T cell clones from peripheral blood and biopsy specimens from a foreign subject. Some of these flora specific T cell clones were cross reactive with defined enterobacteria. In addition, T cell clones stimulated by their own indigenous aerobic flora were identified in patients with IBD. CONCLUSION: Immune responses to antigens from the intestinal microflora involve a complex network of T cell specificities. (+info)
Characterization of Bacteroides forsythus strains from cat and dog bite wounds in humans and comparison with monkey and human oral strains.
Bacteroides forsythus strains recovered from cat and dog bite wound infections in humans (n = 3), monkey oral strains (n = 3), and the human oral ATCC 43037 type strain were characterized by using phenotypic characteristics, enzymatic tests, whole cell fatty acid analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, PCR fingerprinting, and 16S rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequencing. All three bite wound isolates grew on brucella agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood, vitamin K1, and hemin. These strains, unlike the ATCC strain and previously described monkey oral and human clinical strains, did not require N-acetylmuramic acid supplementation for growth as pure cultures. However, their phenotypic characteristics, except for catalase production, were similar to those of previously identified strains. PCR fingerprinting analysis showed differences in band patterns from the ATCC strain. Also, SDS-PAGE and whole cell fatty acid analysis indicated that the dog and cat bite wound strains were similar but not identical to the human B. forsythus ATCC 43037 type strain and the monkey oral strains. The rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the three bite wound isolates had 99.93% homology with each other and 98.9 and 99.22% homology with the human ATCC 43037 and monkey oral strains, respectively. These results suggest that there are host-specific variations within each group. (+info)
Differential induction of colitis and gastritis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats selectively colonized with Bacteroides vulgatus or Escherichia coli.
Resident bacteria play an important role in initiating and perpetuating gastrointestinal inflammation. We previously demonstrated that six commensal bacteria including Bacteroides vulgatus caused more aggressive colitis and gastritis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats than did the other five bacteria without B. vulgatus. This study compared the degree of gastrointestinal inflammation in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic rats monoassociated with either B. vulgatus or Escherichia coli. Gnotobiotic transgenic rats raised in Trexler isolators were selectively colonized with either B. vulgatus or E. coli. Control rats were either germfree or colonized with six common commensal bacteria (Streptococcus faecium, E. coli, Streptococcus avium, Eubacterium contortum, Peptostreptococcus productus, and B. vulgatus [DESEP-B]). After 1 month, all the rats were killed and tissues were prepared for histologic and biochemical evaluation. Colitis induced by B. vulgatus monoassociation was almost equal to that in DESEP-B-colonized rats and was significantly more severe than E. coli-induced colitis, which was absent by histological testing and mild by colonic myeloperoxidase and interleukin-1beta concentration determinations. However, gastritis was detectable only in DESEP-B-associated rats. These studies suggest that not all resident bacteria have equal proinflammatory capabilities, since B. vulgatus alone is more active than E. coli alone in inducing colitis, and that colitis and gastritis result from different luminal bacterial stimuli. (+info)
Anaerobic fecal bacteria of the baboon.
The predominant bacterial genera of baboon feces were enumerated and identified by established procedures. The predominant genera isolated were Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, Streptococcus, and Bacteroides. (+info)