Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a lindane-degrading bacterium.
Lindane-degrading activity under aerobic conditions has been observed in two bacterial strains: UT26, phenotypically identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and a new single unidentified isolate named RP5557T. The rrs (16S rDNA) sequences for both strains and the phenotypic characteristics for the unidentified isolate RP5557T were determined. RP5557T does not have high identity (less than 90% in all cases) with any sequence in the GenBank or RDP databases. A phylogenetic analysis based on rrs sequences indicated that RP5557T belongs to the gamma-Proteobacteria in a coherent phylum that includes the genera Xanthomonas and Xylella (100% bootstrap), whereas UT26 is clearly separate from the Xanthomonas cluster. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and on the phenotypic characteristics, a new genus, Rhodanobacter, containing a single species, Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus, is proposed for strain RP5557T (= LMG 18385T), which becomes the type strain. (+info)
Rubrimonas cliftonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium isolated from a saline lake.
Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed with two strains (OCh 317T and OCh 318; T = type strain) of aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria isolated from water of a saline lake located on the west coast of Australia. Both strains were Gram-negative, short rods and were motile by means of polar flagella. Catalase, oxidase, nitrate reductase, phosphatase and urease were produced. The cells utilized D-glucose, citrate, glycolate, pyruvate and ethanol. Acids were produced from L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-ribose and D-xylose. The strains could grow in media containing 0.5-7.5% NaCl. Bacteriochlorophyll a was synthesized under aerobic conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain OCh 317T represented a new lineage in the alpha-3 group of the class Proteobacteria. Strains OCh 317T and OCh 318 were identified as strains of the same species because of their very similar phenotypic characteristics and their previously described high DNA-DNA homology. Therefore, it was concluded that the two strains should be assigned to a new genus and species, for which the name Rubrimonas cliftonensis is proposed. The type strain is OCh 317T (= JCM 10189T). (+info)
Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis.
By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml. (+info)
Ciprofloxacin administration decreases enhanced ethanol elimination in ethanol-fed rats.
Many colonic aerobic bacteria possess alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and are capable of oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde. Accordingly, some ingested ethanol can be metabolized in the colon in vivo via the bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation. By diminishing the amount of aerobic colonic bacteria with ciprofloxacin treatment, we recently showed that the bacteriocolonic pathway may contribute up to 9% of total ethanol elimination in naive rats. In the current study we evaluated the role of the bacteriocolonic pathway in enhanced ethanol metabolism following chronic alcohol administration by diminishing the amount of gut aerobic flora by ciprofloxacin treatment. We found that ciprofloxacin treatment totally abolished the enhancement in ethanol elimination rate (EER) caused by chronic alcohol administration and significantly diminished the amount of colonic aerobic bacteria and faecal ADH activity. However, ciprofloxacin treatment had no significant effects on the hepatic microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system, hepatic ADH activity or plasma endotoxin level. Our data suggest that the decrease in the amount of the aerobic colonic bacteria and in faecal ADH activity by ciprofloxacin is primarily responsible for the decrease in the enhanced EER in rats fed alcohol chronically. Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism by gastrointestinal bacteria may therefore contribute significantly to enhanced EER. (+info)
In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin.
Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent. (+info)
Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants.
AIM: To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors. METHODS: Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. RESULTS: By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity. (+info)
Susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity of root nodule bacteria.
The root nodule bacteria (free-living cells) tested had higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the other genera of aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria tested. The catalase activities tended to have a positive correlation with H2O2 resistance among all bacteria tested. Addition of a catalase inhibitor such as 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole increased the susceptibility to H2O2. These results suggest that the lower catalase activity brings about the higher susceptibility of root nodule bacteria to H2O2. Root nodule bacteria seemed to have two or three catalase isozymes during growth and their catalase activities were higher in log phase than in stationary phase, contrary to other genera of bacteria tested. (+info)
Removal of cadmium from scallop hepatopancreas by microbial processes.
A microbial process for removing cadmium from a homogenate of hepatopancreas, a waste of scallop processing, was devised to use this waste for value-added protein resources. Microorganisms were screened on the basis of the ability to remove cadmium from a medium with the initial concentration of 10 mg/l of cadmium. One soil isolate, identified as Xanthomonas sp. UR No. 2 by its taxonomical characteristics, removed 98% of the cadmium in the medium in 2 d. During cultivation of this strain in the homogenates of hepatopancreas digested by endopeptidases, 90% of cadmium was removed, while this strain had little effect on the simple non-digested homogenates. The mass balance of cadmium during homogenizations of the hepatopancreas tissues and cultivations in the protease-treated homogenate were examined. The content of crude proteins of culture supernatant treated by Xanthomonas sp. UR No. 2 was equivalent to those of various feedstuffs on the market. (+info)