Interaction-induced redox switch in the electron transfer complex rusticyanin-cytochrome c(4).
The blue copper protein rusticyanin isolated from the acidophilic proteobacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans displays a pH-dependent redox midpoint potential with a pK value of 7 on the oxidized form of the protein. The nature of the alterations of optical and EPR spectra observed above the pK value indicated that the redox-linked deprotonation occurs on the epsilon-nitrogen of the histidine ligands to the copper ion. Complex formation between rusticyanin and its probable electron transfer partner, cytochrome c(4), induced a decrease of rusticyanin's redox midpoint potential by more than 100 mV together with spectral changes similar to those observed above the pK value of the free form. Complex formation thus substantially modifies the pK value of the surface-exposed histidine ligand to the copper ion and thereby tunes the redox midpoint potential of the copper site. Comparisons with reports on other blue copper proteins suggest that the surface-exposed histidine ligand is employed as a redox tuning device by many members of this group of soluble electron carriers. (+info)Characterization of an operon encoding two c-type cytochromes, an aa(3)-type cytochrome oxidase, and rusticyanin in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 33020.
Despite the importance of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bioremediation and bioleaching, little is known about the genes encoding electron transfer proteins implicated in its energetic metabolism. This paper reports the sequences of the four cox genes encoding the subunits of an aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase. These genes are in a locus containing four other genes: cyc2, which encodes a high-molecular-weight cytochrome c; cyc1, which encodes a c(4)-type cytochrome (c(552)); open reading frame 1, which encodes a putative periplasmic protein of unknown function; and rus, which encodes rusticyanin. The results of Northern and reverse transcription-PCR analyses indicated that these eight genes are cotranscribed. Two transcriptional start sites were identified for this operon. Upstream from each of the start sites was a sigma70-type promoter recognized in Escherichia coli. While transcription in sulfur-grown T. ferrooxidans cells was detected from the two promoters, transcription in ferrous-iron-grown T. ferrooxidans cells was detected only from the downstream promoter. The cotranscription of seven genes encoding redox proteins suggests that all these proteins are involved in the same electron transfer chain; a model taking into account the biochemistry and the genetic data is discussed. (+info)Tryptophan phosphorescence signals characteristic changes in protein dynamics at physiological temperatures.
The Arrhenius plot of the de-excitation rate of tryptophan triplet state deviates from linearity in the physiological temperature range for several proteins with buried tryptophans, similarly to the behaviour of enzyme activity. A model is presented featuring two de-excitation pathways whose effectiveness is regulated by protein dynamics. (+info)Homology modeling of the multicopper oxidase Fet3 gives new insights in the mechanism of iron transport in yeast.
Fet3, the multicopper oxidase of yeast, oxidizes extracellular ferrous iron which is then transported into the cell through the permease Ftr1. A three-dimensional model structure of Fet3 has been derived by homology modeling. Fet3 consists of three cupredoxin domains joined by a trinuclear copper cluster which is connected to the blue copper site located in the third domain. Close to this site, which is the primary electron acceptor from the substrate, residues for a potential iron binding site could be identified. The surface disposition of negatively charged residues suggests that Fet3 can translocate Fe(3+) to the permease Ftr1 through a pathway under electrostatic guidance. (+info)Applications of synchrotron radiation to protein crystallography: preliminary results.
X-ray diffraction photographs of protein single crystals have been obtained using synchrotron radiation produced by an electron-positron storage ring. The diffracted intensities observed with this unconventional source are a factor of at least 60 greater than those obtained with a sealed x-ray tube using the same crystal and instrumental parameters. Diffraction data have been collected by the precession method to higher resolution and using smaller protein crystals than would have been possible with a conventional source. The crystal decay rate in the synchrotron beam for several proteins appears to be substantially less than that observed with Ni-filtered Cu radiation. The tunable nature of the source (which allows selective optimization of anomalous contributions to the scattering factors) and the low angular divergence of the beam make the source very useful for single crystal protein diffraction studies. (+info)Analysis and prediction of inter-strand packing distances between beta-sheets of globular proteins.
Any two beta-strands belonging to two different beta-sheets in a protein structure are considered to pack interactively if each beta-strand has at least one residue that undergoes a loss of one tenth or more of its solvent contact surface area upon packing. A data set of protein 3-D structures (determined at 2.5 A resolution or better), corresponding to 428 protein chains, contains 1986 non-identical pairs of beta-strands involved in interactive packing. The inter-axial distance between these is significantly correlated to the weighted sum of the volumes of the interacting residues at the packing interface. This correlation can be used to predict the changes in the inter-sheet distances in equivalent beta-sheets in homologous proteins and, therefore, is of value in comparative modelling of proteins. (+info)Role of ligand substitution on long-range electron transfer in azurins.
Azurin contains two potential redox sites, a copper centre and, at the opposite end of the molecule, a cystine disulfide (RSSR). Intramolecular electron transfer between a pulse radiolytically produced RSSR- radical anion and the blue Cu(II) ion was studied in a series of azurins in which single-site mutations were introduced into the copper ligand sphere. In the Met121His mutant, the rate constant for intramolecular electron transfer is half that of the corresponding wild-type azurin. In the His46Gly and His117Gly mutants, a water molecule is co-ordinated to the copper ion when no external ligands are added. Both these mutants also exhibit slower intramolecular electron transfer than the corresponding wild-type azurin. However, for the His117Gly mutant in the presence of excess imidazole, an azurin-imidazole complex is formed and the intramolecular electron-transfer rate increases considerably, becoming threefold faster than that observed in the native protein. Activation parameters for all these electron-transfer processes were determined and combined with data from earlier studies on intramolecular electron transfer in wild-type and single-site-mutated azurins. A linear relationship between activation enthalpy and activation entropy was observed. These results are discussed in terms of reorganization energies, driving force and possible electron-transfer pathways. (+info)The structure and dynamics in solution of Cu(I) pseudoazurin from Paracoccus pantotrophus.
The solution structure and backbone dynamics of Cu(I) pseudoazurin, a 123 amino acid electron transfer protein from Paracoccus pantotrophus, have been determined using NMR methods. The structure was calculated to high precision, with a backbone RMS deviation for secondary structure elements of 0.35+/-0.06 A, using 1,498 distance and 55 torsion angle constraints. The protein has a double-wound Greek-key fold with two alpha-helices toward its C-terminus, similar to that of its oxidized counterpart determined by X-ray crystallography. Comparison of the Cu(I) solution structure with the X-ray structure of the Cu(II) protein shows only small differences in the positions of some of the secondary structure elements. Order parameters S2, measured for amide nitrogens, indicate that the backbone of the protein is rigid on the picosecond to nanosecond timescale. (+info)