The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins.
(49/282)An intramolecular electron-transfer process has previously been shown to take place between the Cys3--Cys26 radical-ion (RSSR-) produced pulse radiolytically and the Cu(II) ion in the blue single-copper protein, azurin [Farver, O. & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 86, 6868-6972]. To further investigate the nature of this long-range electron transfer (LRET) proceeding within the protein matrix, we have now investigated it in two azurins where amino acids have been substituted by single-site mutation of the wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. In one mutated protein, a methionine residue (Met44) that is proximal to the copper coordination sphere has been replaced by a positively charged lysyl residue ([M44K]azurin), while in the second mutant, another residue neighbouring the Cu-coordination site (His35) has been replaced by a glutamine ([H35Q]azurin). Though both these substitutions are not in the microenvironment separating the electron donor and acceptor, they were expected to affect the LRET rate because of their effect on the redox potential of the copper site and thus on the driving force of the reaction, as well as on the reorganization energies of the copper site. The rate of intramolecular electron transfer from RSSR- to Cu(II) in the wild-type P. aeruginosa azurin (delta G degrees = -68.9 kJ/mol) has previously been determined to be 44 +/- 7 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0. The [M44K]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -75.3 kJ/mol) was now found to react considerably faster (k = 134 +/- 12 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0) while the [H35Q]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -65.4 kJ/mol) exhibits, within experimental error, the same specific rate (k = 52 +/- 11 s-1, 298 K, pH 7.0) as that of the wild-type azurin. From the temperature dependence of these LRET rates the following activation parameters were calculated: delta H++ = 37.9 +/- 1.3 kJ/mol and 47.2 +/- 0.7 kJ/mol and delta S++ = -86.5 +/- 5.8 J/mol.K and -46.4 +/- 4.4 J/mol.K for [H35Q]azurin and [M44K]azurin, respectively. Using the Marcus relation for intramolecular electron transfer and the above parameters we have determined the reorganization energy, lambda and electronic coupling factor, beta. The calculated values fit very well with a through-bond LRET mechanism. (+info)
The amino acid sequence of a type I copper protein with an unusual serine- and hydroxyproline-rich C-terminal domain isolated from cucumber peelings.
(50/282)We have determined the amino acid sequence of a small copper protein isolated from cucumber peelings. This cupredoxin contains 137 amino acids including a pyroglutamate as the first residue. The N-terminal 110 amino acid-long domain shows 30-37% identity to 2 other cupredoxins, stellacyanin and cucumber basic blue protein. A unique feature of this protein is a 27 amino acid-long C-terminal domain rich in 4-hydroxyproline and serine and resembling certain plant cell wall proteins. The prolines in this domain are hydroxylated to a different extent depending on the surrounding sequence. (+info)
Effects of cavity-forming mutations on the internal dynamics of azurin.
(51/282)The effects of two single-point cavity-forming mutations, F110S and I7S, on the internal dynamics of azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were probed by the phosphorescence emission of Trp-48, deeply buried in the compact hydrophobic core of the macromolecule. Changes in flexibility of the protein matrix around the chromophore were monitored by the intrinsic phosphorescence lifetime (tau(0)) whereas more general effects on structural fluctuations were deduced from the phosphorescence acrylamide quenching rate constant (k(q)), which measures the diffusion of the solute through the protein fold. The results show a spectacular, 4-5 orders of magnitude, increase of k(q) emphasizing that large amplitude structural fluctuations permitting acrylamide migration to the protein core have been drastically enhanced in each azurin mutant. The large, 12-15 kcal/mol, decrease in the activation enthalpy associated to k(q) suggests that the rate enhancement is caused, rather than through a generalized increase of protein flexibility, by the elimination of an inner barrier to the diffusion process. According to tau(0) the chromophore environment is more fluid with I7S but strikingly more rigid with F110S, demonstrating that when internal cavities are formed local effects on the mobility at the mutation site are unpredictable. Both tau(0) and k(q) reveal a structure tightening role of bound Cd(2+) that correlates with the increase in stability from apo- to holo-azurin. While these alterations in internal dynamics of azurin do not seem to play a role on electron transfer through the central region, the enhanced migration of acrylamide emphasizes that cavities may be critical for the rapid diffusion of substrates to buried, solvent inaccessible sites of enzymes. (+info)
Apoptosis or growth arrest: Modulation of tumor suppressor p53's specificity by bacterial redox protein azurin.
(52/282)The tumor suppressor protein p53 is known to induce either apoptosis or growth arrest depending on cellular background. We have previously reported that a bacterial redox protein azurin induces apoptosis in J774 cell line-derived macrophages whereas a site-directed mutant M44KM64E azurin shows very little cytotoxicity and fails to induce apoptosis in J774 cells. We now report that purified M44KM64E mutant azurin protein can enter both J774 cells as well as the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Entry of M44KM64E mutant azurin in J774 cells causes strong inhibition of cell-cycle progression at the G1 to S phase and a higher level of transcription of the p21 gene. Corresponding to high p21 levels, the levels of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases were greatly lowered in M44KM64E mutant azurin-treated J774 cells. Interestingly, M44KM64E mutant azurin protein failed to elicit inhibition of cell-cycle progression in MCF-7 cells, presumably because of mutation at the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein that allows functional E2F formation in MCF-7 cells even in the presence of high intracellular p21 level. Thus, the WT azurin induces apoptosis but little inhibition of cell-cycle progression whereas the M44KM64E mutant azurin is deficient in the induction of apoptosis but mediates strong inhibition of cell-cycle progression, demonstrating the role of a single bacterial protein and its hydrophobic patch in modulating two important functions of p53. (+info)
Electron tunneling in rhenium-modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins.
(53/282)Laser flash-quench methods have been used to generate tyrosine and tryptophan radicals in structurally characterized rhenium-modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins. Cu(I) to "Re(II)" electron tunneling in Re(H107) azurin occurs in the microsecond range. This reaction is much faster than that studied previously for Cu(I) to Ru(III) tunneling in Ru(H107) azurin, suggesting that a multistep ("hopping") mechanism might be involved. Although a Y108 radical can be generated by flash-quenching a Re(H107)M(II) (M=Cu, Zn) protein, the evidence suggests that it is not an active intermediate in the enhanced Cu(I) oxidation. Rather, the likely explanation is rapid conversion of Re(II)(H107) to deprotonated Re(I)(H107 radical), followed by electron tunneling from Cu(I) to the hole in the imidazole ligand. (+info)
Regulation of mammalian cell growth and death by bacterial redox proteins: relevance to ecology and cancer therapy.
(54/282)Recent evidence indicates that bacterial redox proteins such as cupredoxins and cytochromes, that are normally involved in electron transfer during respiration, can enter mammalian cells and induce either apoptosis or inhibition of cell cycle progression. Such proteins have also been shown to demonstrate a good deal of specificity for entry and induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, allowing both in vitro cell death and in vivo inhibition of cancer progression. An alteration in the hydrophobicity of the bacterial redox proteins can lead to a switch from apoptosis to growth arrest and vice versa through modulation of the intracellular levels of tumor suppressors. The preferential entry and cytotoxicity of these redox proteins in cancer cells raises interesting questions about the presence of other bacterial proteins that may affect cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase, thereby potentially arresting cancer growth. The intracellular localization of the bacterial redox proteins in nonpathogenic soil bacteria similarly raises questions about their possible role in allowing various nonpathogenic soil bacteria to defend themselves from environmental predators by inducing cytotoxicity when engulfed in large numbers. A new role of the redox proteins in soil bacteria in maintaining an ecological balance among the predators and preys is proposed. (+info)
Copper-containing nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas chlororaphis DSM 50135.
(55/282)The nitrite reductase (Nir) isolated from Pseudomonas chlororaphis DSM 50135 is a blue enzyme, with type 1 and type 2 copper centers, as in all copper-containing Nirs described so far. For the first time, a direct determination of the reduction potentials of both copper centers in a Cu-Nir was performed: type 2 copper (T2Cu), 172 mV and type 1 copper (T1Cu), 298 mV at pH 7.6. Although the obtained values seem to be inconsistent with the established electron-transfer mechanism, EPR data indicate that the binding of nitrite to the T2Cu center increases its potential, favoring the electron-transfer process. Analysis of the EPR spectrum of the turnover form of the enzyme also suggests that the electron-transfer process between T1Cu and T2Cu is the fastest of the three redox processes involved in the catalysis: (a) reduction of T1Cu; (b) oxidation of T1Cu by T2Cu; and (c) reoxidation of T2Cu by NO(2) (-). Electrochemical experiments show that azurin from the same organism can donate electrons to this enzyme. (+info)
Regulation of the expression of the Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans rus operon encoding two cytochromes c, a cytochrome oxidase and rusticyanin.
(56/282)The regulation of the expression of the rus operon, proposed to encode an electron transfer chain from the outer to the inner membrane in the obligate acidophilic chemolithoautroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, has been studied at the RNA and protein levels. As observed by Northern hybridization, real-time PCR and reverse transcription analyses, this operon was more highly expressed in ferrous iron- than in sulfur-grown cells. Furthermore, it was shown by immunodetection that components of this respiratory chain are synthesized in ferrous iron- rather than in sulfur-growth conditions. Nonetheless, weak transcription and translation products of the rus operon were detected in sulfur-grown cells at the early exponential phase. The results strongly support the notion that rus-operon expression is induced by ferrous iron, in agreement with the involvement of the rus-operon-encoded products in the oxidation of ferrous iron, and that ferrous iron is used in preference to sulfur. (+info)