Respiratory isozyme, two types of rusticyanin of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.
(41/282)Among the members of the copper protein superfamily, the type I enzyme rusticyanin, which is found as an electron carrier in the oxidative respiratory chain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, is the only one to have both a high redox potential and acid stability. Here we report that two forms of the rusticyanin gene (rus) are present in the genomes of some strains of A. ferrooxidans. The more common form of rus (type-A) was found to be present in all six strains studied, including those harboring only a single copy of the gene. In addition a less common form (type-B) occurred in strains harboring multiple copies of the gene. The two genes were expressed as rusticyanin isozymes with differing surface charges due to differences in their amino acid composition. Still, the copper coordination sites were completely conserved, thereby maintaining the high redox potential necessary for an electron carrier. (+info)
A quantitative model for the mechanism of action of the cytochrome c peroxidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
(42/282)Each of the elementary reaction steps in both the activation process and catalytic cycle of the cytochrome c peroxidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was characterized using stopped-flow methods. A synthesis of these data led to the establishment of a quantitative model for the action of this enzyme. Comparisons were made between experimental data and calculations over a wide range of enzyme, reductant and H2O2 concentrations. Close agreement was found between empirical and simulated reaction time courses from millisecond to tens of seconds time ranges, giving us confidence in the validity of the quantitative model of this enzyme's actions. (+info)
The importance of Asn47 for structure and reactivity of azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans as studied by site-directed mutagenesis and spectroscopy.
(43/282)To study the importance of a rigid copper site for the structure and function of azurin, a mutant with a reduced number of internal hydrogen bonds around the copper has been prepared and characterized. To this purpose, the previously cloned azu gene from Alcaligenes denitrificans (Hoitink, C. W. G., Woudt, L. P., Turenhout, J. C. M., Van de Kamp, M., and Canters, G. W. (1990) Gene (Amst.) 90, 15-20) was expressed in Escherichia coli and an isolation and purification procedure for the azurin was developed. The azurin obtained after heterologous expression in E. coli appears spectroscopically indistinguishable from azurin derived from A. denitrificans. The hydrogen bonding network around the copper site was altered by replacing Asn47 by a leucine by means of site-directed mutagenesis. Asn47 is a conserved residue in all blue copper proteins of which the primary structure has been reported. Characterization of the mutant protein with UV-visible, electron spin resonance, and NMR spectroscopy, and comparison with the wild type azurin revealed that the structure of the copper site as well as the overall structure of the protein have been largely retained. The redox activity as measured by the electron self-exchange rate appears not to have changed either. However, the mutant differs from the wild type azurin with respect to stability and midpoint potential. Midpoint potentials of mutant and wild type azurin amount to 396 and 286 mV, respectively. The difference is due to sizable entropic and enthalpic contributions which to a large extent cancel. Possible explanations for the outcome of these experiments are discussed. (+info)
Restoration of a lost metal-binding site: construction of two different copper sites into a subunit of the E. coli cytochrome o quinol oxidase complex.
(44/282)The cupredoxin fold, a Greek key beta-barrel, is a common structural motif in a family of small blue copper proteins and a subdomain in many multicopper oxidases. Here we show that a cupredoxin domain is present in subunit II of cytochrome c and quinol oxidase complexes. In the former complex this subunit is thought to bind a copper centre called CuA which is missing from the latter complex. We have expressed the C-terminal fragment of the membrane-bound CyoA subunit of the Escherichia coli cytochrome o quinol oxidase as a water-soluble protein. Two mutants have been designed into the CyoA fragment. The optical spectrum shows that one mutant is similar to blue copper proteins. The second mutant has an optical spectrum and redox potential like the purple copper site in nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR). This site is closely related to CuA, which is the copper centre typical of cytochrome c oxidase. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of both this mutant and the entire cytochrome o complex, into which the CuA site has been introduced, are similar to the EPR spectra of the native CuA site in cytochrome oxidase. These results give the first experimental evidence that CuA is bound to the subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase and open a new way to study this peculiar copper site. (+info)
Conformational substates in azurin.
(45/282)Azurin is a small blue copper protein in the electron transfer chain of denitrifying bacteria. It forms a photolabile complex with nitric oxide (NO) at low temperatures. We studied the temperature dependence of the ligand binding equilibrium and the kinetics of the association reaction after photodissociation over a wide range of temperature (80-280 K) and time (10(-6)-10(2) s). The nonexponential rebinding below 200 K is independent of the NO concentration and is interpreted as internal recombination. The rebinding can be modeled with the Arrhenius law by using a single preexponential factor of 6.3 x 10(8) s-1 and a Gaussian distribution of enthalpy barriers centered at 23 kJ/mol with a width of 11 kJ/mol. Above 200 K, a slower, exponential rebinding process appears. The dependence of the kinetics on the NO concentration characterizes this reaction as bimolecular rebinding. The binding kinetics of NO to azurin show impressive analogies to the binding of carbon monoxide to myoglobin. We conclude that conformational substates occur not only in heme proteins but also in proteins with different active sites and secondary structures. (+info)
Approaching the speed limit for Greek Key beta-barrel formation: transition-state movement tunes folding rate of zinc-substituted azurin.
(46/282)Azurin is a blue-copper protein with a beta-barrel structure of Greek Key topology. In vitro, copper can be substituted with zinc without change in protein structure. We here analyze the kinetic folding behavior of zinc-substituted Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. Our findings can be summarized in three key conclusions: first, zinc remains strongly bound to the polypeptide upon unfolding, suggesting that the cofactor may bind to the protein before polypeptide folding in vivo. Second, the semi-logarithmic plot of folding and unfolding rates for zinc-substituted azurin as a function of denaturant concentration exhibits curvature due to a changing transition-state structure. Third, the extrapolated folding speed in water for zinc-substituted azurin is similar to that of other proteins with the same topology, implying that there is a speed limit that can be modulated by stability-driven transition-state movement for formation of beta-barrel structures with Greek Key topology. (+info)
A mutant of Paracoccus denitrificans with disrupted genes coding for cytochrome c550 and pseudoazurin establishes these two proteins as the in vivo electron donors to cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase.
(47/282)In Paracoccus denitrificans, electrons pass from the membrane-bound cytochrome bc(1) complex to the periplasmic nitrite reductase, cytochrome cd(1). The periplasmic protein cytochrome c(550) has often been implicated in this electron transfer, but its absence, as a consequence of mutation, has previously been shown to result in almost no attenuation in the ability of the nitrite reductase to function in intact cells. Here, the hypothesis that cytochrome c(550) and pseudoazurin are alternative electron carriers from the cytochrome bc(1) complex to the nitrite reductase was tested by construction of mutants of P. denitrificans that are deficient in either pseudoazurin or both pseudoazurin and cytochrome c(550). The latter organism, but not the former (which is almost indistinguishable in this respect from the wild type), grows poorly under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as an added electron acceptor and accumulates nitrite in the medium. Growth under aerobic conditions with either succinate or methanol as the carbon source is not significantly affected in mutants lacking either pseudoazurin or cytochrome c(550) or both these proteins. We concluded that pseudoazurin and cytochrome c(550) are the alternative electron mediator proteins between the cytochrome bc(1) complex and the cytochrome cd(1)-type nitrite reductase. We also concluded that expression of pseudoazurin is mainly controlled by the transcriptional activator FnrP. (+info)
Perturbation of protein tertiary structure in frozen solutions revealed by 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate fluorescence.
(48/282)Although freeze-induced perturbations of the protein native fold are common, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood owing to the difficulty of monitoring their structure in ice. In this report we propose that binding of the fluorescence probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) to proteins in ice can provide a useful monitor of ice-induced strains on the native fold. Experiments conducted with copper-free azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as a model protein system, demonstrate that in frozen solutions the fluorescence of ANS is enhanced several fold and becomes blue shifted relative free ANS. From the enhancement factor it is estimated that, at -13 degrees C, on average at least 1.6 ANS molecules become immobilized within hydrophobic sites of apo-azurin, sites that are destroyed when the structure is largely unfolded by guanidinium hydrochloride. The extent of ANS binding is influenced by temperature of ice as well as by conditions that affect the stability of the globular structure. Lowering the temperature from -4 degrees C to -18 degrees C leads to an apparent increase in the number of binding sites, an indication that low temperature and /or a reduced amount of liquid water augment the strain on the protein tertiary structure. It is significant that ANS binding is practically abolished when the native fold is stabilized upon formation of the Cd(2+) complex or on addition of glycerol to the solution but is further enhanced in the presence of NaSCN, a known destabilizing agent. The results of the present study suggest that the ANS binding method may find practical utility in testing the effectiveness of various additives employed in protein formulations as well as to devise safer freeze-drying protocols of pharmaceutical proteins. (+info)