Analysis of the membrane-interacting domains of myelin basic protein by hydrophobic photolabeling.
(1/145)Myelin basic protein is a water soluble membrane protein which interacts with acidic lipids through some type of hydrophobic interaction in addition to electrostatic interactions. Here we show that it can be labeled from within the lipid bilayer when bound to acidic lipids with the hydrophobic photolabel 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID) and by two lipid photolabels. The latter included one with the reactive group near the apolar/polar interface and one with the reactive group linked to an acyl chain to position it deeper in the bilayer. The regions of the protein which interact hydrophobically with lipid to the greatest extent were determined by cleaving the TID-labeled myelin basic protein (MBP) with cathepsin D into peptides 1-43, 44-89, and 90-170. All three peptides from lipid-bound protein were labeled much more than peptides from the protein labeled in solution. However, the peptide labeling pattern was similar for both environments. The two peptides in the N-terminal half were labeled similarly and about twice as much as the C-terminal peptide indicating that the N-terminal half interacts hydrophobically with lipid more than the C-terminal half. MBP can be modified post-translationally in vivo, including by deamidation, which may alter its interactions with lipid. However, deamidation had no effect on the TID labeling of MBP or on the labeling pattern of the cathepsin D peptides. The site of deamidation has been reported to be in the C-terminal half, and its lack of effect on hydrophobic interactions of MBP with lipid are consistent with the conclusion that the N-terminal half interacts hydrophobically more than the C-terminal half. Since other studies of the interaction of isolated N-terminal and C-terminal peptides with lipid also indicate that the N-terminal half interacts hydrophobically with lipid more than the C-terminal half, these results from photolabeling of the intact protein suggest that the N-terminal half of the intact protein interacts with lipid in a similar way as the isolated peptide. The similar behavior of the intact protein to that of its isolated peptides suggests that when the purified protein binds to acidic lipids, it is in a conformation which allows both halves of the protein to interact independently with the lipid bilayer. That is, it does not form a hydrophobic domain made up from different parts of the protein. (+info)
NADH-quinone oxidoreductase: PSST subunit couples electron transfer from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone.
(2/145)The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (EC 184.108.40.206) is the largest and least understood enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. The mammalian mitochondrial enzyme (also called complex I) contains more than 40 subunits, whereas its structurally simpler bacterial counterpart (NDH-1) in Paracoccus denitrificans and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 consists of 14 subunits. A major unsolved question is the location and mechanism of the terminal electron transfer step from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. Potent inhibitors acting at this key region are candidate photoaffinity probes to dissect NADH-quinone oxidoreductases. Complex I and NDH-1 are very sensitive to inhibition by a variety of structurally diverse toxicants, including rotenone, piericidin A, bullatacin, and pyridaben. We designed (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl[3H]pyridaben ([3H]TDP) as our photoaffinity ligand because it combines outstanding inhibitor potency, a suitable photoreactive group, and tritium at high specific activity. Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial electron transport particles was specific and saturable. Isolation, protein sequencing, and immunoprecipitation identified the high-affinity specifically labeled 23-kDa subunit as PSST of complex I. Immunoprecipitation of labeled membranes of P. denitrificans and T. thermophilus established photoaffinity labeling of the equivalent bacterial NQO6. Competitive binding and enzyme inhibition studies showed that photoaffinity labeling of the specific high-affinity binding site of PSST is exceptionally sensitive to each of the high-potency inhibitors mentioned above. These findings establish that the homologous PSST of mitochondria and NQO6 of bacteria have a conserved inhibitor-binding site and that this subunit plays a key role in electron transfer by functionally coupling iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. (+info)
Inhibition of DNA replicon initiation by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, adriamycin, and ethyleneimine.
(3/145)The effects of three widely differing chemical carcinogens, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, Adriamycin, and ethyleneimine, on DNA replication were studied by pulse labeling of DNA with [3H]thymidine and sedimentation analysis with alkaline sucrose gradients. At doses that reduced the rate of DNA synthesis to 30 to 60% of control values, only ethyleneimine produced damage that resulted in lower molecular weights of parental DNA. All three chemicals inhibited replicon initiation, but to differing extents. Inhibition of replicon initiation was the first clearly identified effect of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide and was the main cause of inhibition of DNA synthesis. Ethyleneimine caused severe inhibition of replicon initiation, but blocks to chain elongation also contributed significantly to the inhibition of overall DNA synthesis. Adriamycin affected replicon initiation to a small but significant extent; the primary cause of inhibition of DNA synthesis by this drug was a slowing of the rate of chain elongation. These results indicate that inhibition of replicon initiation is an important mechanism for the action of DNA-damaging agents in mammalian cells and strengthen the concept that control of DNA replication depends on the structural integrity of a chromosomal subunit that consists of several replicons. (+info)
The membrane binding domains of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases 1 and 2. Peptide mapping and mutational analysis.
(4/145)Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases 1 and 2 (PGHS-1 and -2) are the major targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Both isozymes are integral membrane proteins but lack transmembrane domains. X-ray crystallographic studies have led to the hypothesis that PGHS-1 and -2 associate with only one face of the membrane bilayer through a novel, monotopic membrane binding domain (MBD) that is comprised of four short, consecutive, amphipathic alpha-helices (helices A-D) that include residues 74-122 in ovine PGHS-1 (oPGHS-1) and residues 59-108 in human PGHS-2 (hPGHS-2). Previous biochemical studies from our laboratory showed that the MBD of oPGHS-1 lies somewhere between amino acids 25 and 166. In studies reported here, membrane-associated forms of oPGHS-1 and hPGHS-2 were labeled using the hydrophobic, photoactivable reagent 3-trifluoro-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine, isolated, and cleaved with AspN and/or GluC, and the photolabeled peptides were sequenced. The results establish that the MBDs of oPGHS-1 and hPGHS-2 reside within residues 74-140 and 59-111, respectively, and thus provide direct provide biochemical support for the hypothesis that PGHS-1 and -2 do associate with membranes through a monotopic MBD. We also prepared HelA, HelB, and HelC mutants of oPGHS-1, in which, for each helix, three or four hydrophobic residues expected to protrude into the membrane were replaced with small, neutral residues. When expressed in COS-1 cells, HelA and HelC mutants exhibited little or no catalytic activity and were present, at least in part, as misfolded aggregates. The HelB mutant retained about 20% of the cyclooxygenase activity of native oPGHS-1 and partitioned in subcellular fractions like native oPGHS-1; however, the HelB mutant exhibited an extra site of N-glycosylation at Asn(104). When this glycosylation site was eliminated (HelB/N104Q mutation), the mutant lacked cyclooxygenase activity. Thus, our mutational analyses indicate that the amphipathic character of each helix is important for the assembly and folding of oPGHS-1 to a cyclooxygenase active form. (+info)
Examining the noncompetitive antagonist-binding site in the ion channel of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the resting state.
(5/145)3-Trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([(125)I]TID) has been shown to be a potent noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Amino acids that contribute to the binding site for [(125)I]TID in the ion channel have been identified in both the resting and desensitized state of the AChR (White, B.H., and Cohen, J.B. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 15770-15783). To characterize further the structure of the NCA-binding site in the resting state channel, we have employed structural analogs of TID. The TID analogs were assessed by the following: 1) their ability to inhibit [(125)I]TID photoincorporation into the resting state channel; 2) the pattern, agonist sensitivity, and NCA inhibition of [(125)I]TID analog photoincorporation into AChR subunits. The addition of a primary alcohol group to TID has no demonstrable effect on the interaction of the compound with the resting state channel. However, conversion of the alcohol function to acetate, isobutyl acetate (TIDBIBA), or to trimethyl acetate leads to rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves for inhibition of [(125)I]TID photoincorporation into the AChR channel and a progressive reduction in the agonist sensitivity of [(125)I]TID analog photoincorporation into AChR subunits. Inhibition of [(125)I]TID analog photoincorporation by NCAs (e.g. tetracaine) as well as identification of the sites of [(125)I]TIDBIBA photoincorporation in the deltaM2 segment indicate a common binding locus for each TID analog. We conclude that relatively small additions to TID progressively reduce its ability to interact with the NCA site in the resting state channel. A model of the NCA site and resting state channel is presented. (+info)
Assembly of archaeal signal recognition particle from recombinant components.
(6/145)Signal recognition particle (SRP) takes part in protein targeting and secretion in all organisms. Searches for components of archaeal SRP in primary databases and completed genomes indicated that archaea possess only homologs of SRP RNA, and proteins SRP19 and SRP54. A recombinant SRP was assembled from cloned, expressed and purified components of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Recombinant Af-SRP54 associated with the signal peptide of bovine pre-prolactin translated in vitro. As in mammalian SRP, Af-SRP54 binding to Af-SRP RNA required protein Af-SRP19, although notable amounts bound in absence of Af-SRP19. Archaeoglobus fulgidus SRP proteins also bound to full-length SRP RNA of the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii, to eukaryotic human SRP RNA, and to truncated versions which corresponded to the large domain of SRP. Dependence on SRP19 was most pronounced with components from the same species. Reconstitutions with heterologous components revealed a significant potential of human SRP proteins to bind to archaeal SRP RNAs. Surprisingly, M.jannaschii SRP RNA bound to human SRP54M quantitatively in the absence of SRP19. This is the first report of reconstitution of an archaeal SRP from recombinantly expressed purified components. The results highlight structural and functional conservation of SRP assembly between archaea and eucarya. (+info)
Molecular models of the structural arrangement of subunits and the mechanism of proton translocation in the membrane domain of F(1)F(0) ATP synthase.
(7/145)Subunit c of the proton-transporting ATP synthase of Escherichia coli forms an oligomeric complex in the membrane domain that functions in transmembrane proton conduction. The arrangement of subunit c monomers in this oligomeric complex was studied by scanning mutagenesis. On the basis of these studies and structural information on subunit c, different molecular models for the potential arrangement of monomers in the c-oligomer are discussed. Intersubunit contacts in the F(0) domain that have been analysed in the past by chemical modification and mutagenesis studies are summarised. Transient contacts of the c-oligomer with subunit a might play a crucial role in the mechanism of proton translocation. Schematic models presented by several authors that interpret proton transport in the F(0) domain by a relative rotation of the c-subunit oligomer against subunit a are reviewed against the background of the molecular models of the oligomer. (+info)
A conformational intermediate between the resting and desensitized states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
(8/145)The structural changes induced in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by two noncompetitive channel blockers, proadifen and phencyclidine, have been studied by infrared difference spectroscopy and using the conformationally sensitive photoreactive noncompetitive antagonist 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-m-([(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine. Simultaneous binding of proadifen to both the ion channel pore and neurotransmitter sites leads to the loss of positive markers near 1663, 1655, 1547, 1430, and 1059 cm(-)(1) in carbamylcholine difference spectra, suggesting the stabilization of a desensitized conformation. In contrast, only the positive markers near 1663 and 1059 cm(-)(1) are maximally affected by the binding of either blocker to the ion channel pore suggesting that the conformationally sensitive residues vibrating at these two frequencies are stabilized in a desensitized-like conformation, whereas those vibrating near 1655 and 1430 cm(-)(1) remain in a resting-like state. The vibrations at 1547 cm(-)(1) are coupled to those at both 1663 and 1655 cm(-)(1) and thus exhibit an intermediate pattern of band intensity change. The formation of a structural intermediate between the resting and desensitized states in the presence of phencyclidine is further supported by the pattern of 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-m-([(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine photoincorporation. In the presence of phencyclidine, the subunit labeling pattern is distinct from that observed in either the resting or desensitized conformations; specifically, there is a concentration-dependent increase in the extent of photoincorporation into the delta-subunit. Our data show that domains of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor interconvert between the resting and desensitized states independently of each other and suggest a revised model of channel blocker action that involves both low and high affinity agonist binding conformational intermediates. (+info)