Structure-activity relationship and elucidation of the determinant factor(s) responsible for the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B6 by substituted phenyl diaziridines.
(73/274)It has been demonstrated previously that several 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)diaziridines inhibit the 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoroethyl)coumarin (7-EFC) O-deethylation activity of P450 2B6 in a mechanism-based manner. In contrast, 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(4-methylthio)phenyl)diaziridine did not have any effect on the activity of P450 2B6. It is interesting that both the alkoxy and the thiophenyl compounds were metabolized by P450 2B6. In this report, the structure-activity relationships for the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B6 by a series of aryl diaziridines were investigated. Three diaziridines that did not contain a 4-alkoxy-substituent on their phenyl ring, namely, 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)diaziridine, 3-trifluoromethyl-3-phenyl diaziridine, and 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)diaziridine had no effect on the P450 2B6 7-EFC activity. Another analog that did not contain a diaziridine substructure, 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone, also had no effect on the activity of P450 2B6. Glutathione ethyl ester adducts of the phenyldiaziridine reactive intermediates were isolated from reaction mixtures of the inactivated samples and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of the conjugates suggested that the electrophilic reactive intermediate in each case was a quinone methide (quinomethane), 4-ethylidene-cyclohexa-2,5-dienone, generated from the 4-alkoxyphenyldiaziridines by removal of both of the diaziridine and the 4-alkyl groups. In conclusion, the determinant factor for the mechanism-based inactivator activity of the aryl diaziridines seems to be the formation of the reactive quinomethane intermediate, which is generated from the 4-alkoxyphenyl diaziridines by a cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolic reaction. (+info)
Repeated cycles of Clostridium-directed enzyme prodrug therapy result in sustained antitumour effects in vivo.
(74/274)The unique properties of the tumour microenvironment can be exploited by using recombinant anaerobic clostridial spores as highly selective gene delivery vectors. Although several recombinant Clostridium species have been generated during the past decade, their efficacy has been limited. Our goal was to substantially improve the prospects of clostridia as a gene delivery vector. Therefore, we have assessed a series of nitroreductase (NTR) enzymes for their capacity to convert the innocuous CB1954 prodrug to its toxic derivative. Among the enzymes tested, one showed superior prodrug turnover characteristics. In addition, we established an efficient gene transfer procedure, based on conjugation, which allows for the first time genetic engineering of Clostridium strains with superior tumour colonisation properties with high success rates. This conjugation procedure was subsequently used to create a recombinant C. sporogenes overexpressing the isolated NTR enzyme. Finally, analogous to a clinical setting situation, we have tested the effect of multiple consecutive treatment cycles, with antibiotic bacterial clearance between cycles. Importantly, this regimen demonstrated that intravenously administered spores of NTR-recombinant C. sporogenes produced significant antitumour efficacy when combined with prodrug administration. (+info)
Reduction of mitomycin C is catalysed by human recombinant NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an electron donating co-factor.
(75/274)NRH:Quinone Oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) has been described as having no enzymatic activity with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or NADPH as electron donating cosubstrates. Mitomycin C (MMC) is both a substrate for and a mechanistic inhibitor of the NQO2 homologue NQO1. NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 catalysed the reduction of MMC at pH 5.8 with NADH as a co-factor. This reaction results in species that inhibit the NQO2-mediated metabolism of CB1954. In addition, MMC caused an increase in DNA cross-links in a cell line transfected to overexpress NQO2 to an extent comparable to that observed with an isogenic NQO1-expressing cell line. These data indicate that NQO2 may contribute to the metabolism of MMC to cytotoxic species. (+info)
Cellular density and cell type are the key factors in growth inhibition induced by 2,5bis [1-aziridinyl]-1,4 benzoquinone (DZQ).
(76/274)BACKGROUND: Cell density regulates the expression of various antioxidant enzymes in cell culture. The aim of this study was to study the effect of 2,5 bis-[1-aziridinyl]-1,4 benzoquinone (DZQ), an antitumor quinone bioactivated by NQO1, on HeLa and HepG2 cells cultured at various cell densities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quinone toxicity was determined by a colorimetric growth inhibition assay. NQO1 and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically in soluble fractions, and NQO1 polypeptide was quantified by immunostaining with a commercial polyclonal antiserum. RESULTS: As reported previously, NQO1 activity was much higher in confluent HeLa cells than in sparse cells. However, HepG2 cultures showed an opposite pattern in the regulation of this antioxidant enzyme, sparse cell cultures showing higher NQO1 activity similar to that found in confluent HeLa cells. The expression pattern of catalase activity was similar to that of NQO1 in HeLa cells, but this activity was constant and cell density-independent in HepG2. The growth inhibition effect of DZQ, correlated with NQO1 activity within a given cell type, but HepG2 was always much more sensitive to DZQ than HeLa cells, even under conditions where NQO1 activity was high in HeLa but low in HepG2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NQO1 activity is a major factor for DZQ bioactivation, but this enzyme is not likely the sole factor involved in the growth inhibition mediated by DZQ. Since part of the cytotoxic effect of DZQ is mediated by H2O2, other antioxidant enzymes, mainly catalase, could modulate the different growth inhibition found between HeLa and HepG2 cells. In confluent HeLa cells, the higher activity of NQO1 coincides with an increment of catalase activity, thus, reducing the oxidative stress produced by the H2O2 formed. (+info)
Effects of N-acyl-2-hydroxymethyl aziridines on in vitro proliferative responses of human lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens.
(77/274)Aziridines have been shown to possess marked immunotropic activity. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effects of different concentrations of three novel aziridines, 2-hydroxy-methyl-1-(N-phtaloylglycyl) aziridine (aziridine 1), 2-hydroxy-methyl-1-(N-phtaloylalanyl) aziridine (aziridine 2) and 2-hydroxy-methyl-1-(N-phtaloylphenylalanyl) aziridine (aziridine 3), on the proliferative responses of human lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens (concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)), and interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion. The results showed that aziridines 1 and 3 significantly stimulated the resting and Con A or LPS lymphocyte proliferation at concentrations between 1 micromol/l and 1 mmol/l, in a dose-dependent manner, the action of aziridine 3 being the highest. They also increased IL-2 and IL-6 secretion. However, aziridine 2 had no effect on the resting lymphocyte proliferation in the absence of mitogens, at any concentration used, reduced Con A-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation and LPS- stimulated B lymphocyte proliferation in a dose dependent manner and diminished IL-2 and IL-6 production. None of the three aziridines affected cell viability. In conclusion, the three aziridines used in this study displayed immunomodulatory properties. Aziridines 1 and 3 are potentially immunostimulant while aziridine 2 is immunosuppressive and could be used to provide nonspecific cell-mediated immune responses. (+info)
Highly efficient synthesis of enantiomerically enriched 2-hydroxymethylaziridines by enzymatic desymmetrization.
(78/274)Both enantiomers of protected and unprotected 2-hydroxymethylaziridines are efficiently and enantiospecifically synthesized by using a combination of enzymatic and synthetic methods. PPL was used for lipase-catalyzed desymmetrization of N-protected serinol. [reaction: see text]. (+info)
FTY720 ameliorates Th1-mediated colitis in mice by directly affecting the functional activity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
(79/274)Following the present concepts, the synthetic sphingosine analog of myriocin FTY720 alters migration and homing of lymphocytes via sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. However, several studies indicate that the immunosuppressive properties of FTY720 may alternatively be due to tolerogenic activities via modulation of dendritic cell differentiation or based on direct effects on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). As Treg play an important role for the cure of inflammatory colitis, we used the Th1-mediated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis model to address the therapeutic potential of FTY720 in vivo. A rectal enema of TNBS was given to BALB/c mice. FTY720 was administered i.p. from days 0 to 3 or 3 to 5. FTY720 substantially reduced all clinical, histopathologic, macroscopic, and microscopic parameters of colitis analyzed. The therapeutic effects of FTY720 were associated with a down-regulation of IL-12p70 and subsequent Th1 cytokines. Importantly, FTY720 treatment resulted in a prominent up-regulation of FoxP3, IL-10, TGFbeta, and CTLA4. Supporting the hypothesis that FTY720 directly affects functional activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg, we measured a significant increase of CD25 and FoxP3 expression in isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T cells of FTY720-treated mice. The impact of FTY720 on Treg induction was further confirmed by concomitant in vivo blockade of CTLA4 or IL-10R which significantly abrogated its therapeutic activity. In conclusion, our data provide clear evidence that in addition to its well-established effects on migration FTY720 leads to a specific down-regulation of proinflammatory signals while simultaneously inducing functional activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg. Thus, FTY720 may offer a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of IBD. (+info)
Phase I/II trial and pharmacokinetics of intrathecal diaziquone in refractory meningeal malignancies.
(80/274)PURPOSE: Because there is a compelling need to develop new agents for intrathecal use, we investigated the safety, efficacy, and CSF pharmacokinetics of diaziquone (AZQ) following intrathecal administration in patients with refractory meningeal malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients received 45 courses of intrathecal AZQ. Two schedules were studied; twice-weekly administration of a 1- or 2-mg dose and "concentration times time" (C x T) administration of 0.5 mg every 6 hours for three doses, administered once weekly. RESULTS: Dose-limiting toxicity consisting of headache, nausea, or vomiting occurred in only three patients and only at the 2-mg, twice weekly dose. The schedules of 1 mg twice-weekly and 0.5 mg every 6 hours for three doses were well tolerated. Thirty-seven courses were assessable for response. The overall response rate was 62%. Complete responses (CRs) occurred in 14 of 37 courses (38%) and partial responses (PRs) occurred in nine of 37 courses (24%). Among patients with meningeal leukemia, CRs were observed in 11 of 26 courses (42%) and PRs in nine of 26 courses (35%). There was no difference in response rate related to dose or schedule. The pharmacokinetic behavior of intrathecally administered AZQ was characterized by biexponential disappearance from ventricular CSF, with mean half-lives of 18.2 and 78.6 minutes. The mean clearance rate was 0.37 mL/min. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal AZQ is safe, well tolerated, and highly active against refractory meningeal malignancies. (+info)