Preclinical evaluation of the pharmacodynamic properties of 2,5-diaziridinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone.
(57/274)PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to investigate the cellular accumulation, DNA cross-linking ability, and cellular toxicity of RH1 (2,5-diaziridinyl-3-[hydroxymethyl[-6-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone), a novel DNA alkylating agent currently in clinical trials. In addition, the in vivo efficacy of RH1 formulated in different vehicles was also compared. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: RH1 is activated by the two-electron reducing enzyme NQO1 [NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase] forming a potent cytotoxic agent that cross-links DNA. We have used whole blood, cell lines, and primary explanted tumor cultures to measure both the cellular accumulation, DNA cross-linking, and cytotoxicity of RH1. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of RH1 formulated in different vehicles were measured in vivo using the validated comet-X assay in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. RESULTS: Accumulation of RH1 was shown to be both time and concentration dependent, reaching a maximum after 2 hours and correlated well with DNA cross-linking measurements. DNA cross-linking in vitro could be detected at low (1-10 nmol/L) concentrations after as little as 2 hours exposure. In primary tumor cultures, RH1 induces much higher levels of DNA cross-links at lower doses than either mitomycin C or cisplatin. In vivo efficacy testing using polyvinyl pyrrolidone, saline, or cyclodextrin as vehicles showed DNA cross-links readily detectable in all tissues examined and was enhanced when given in cyclodextrin compared with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or saline. CONCLUSIONS: RH1 represents a potent bioreductive anticancer drug, which may prove effective in the treatment of cancers, particularly those that overexpress NQO1. DNA cross-linking can be reliably measured in tissue using the validated comet-X assay. (+info)
Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in apoptosis induction by aziridinylbenzoquinones RH1 and MeDZQ.
(58/274)We aimed to characterize the role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in apoptosis induction by antitumour quinones RH1 (2,5-diaziridinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) and MeDZQ (2,5-dimethyl-3,6-diaziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone). Digitonin-permeabilized FLK cells catalyzed NADPH-dependent single- and two-electron reduction of RH1 and MeDZQ. At equitoxic concentrations, RH1 and MeDZQ induced apoptosis more efficiently than the nonalkylating duroquinone or H(2)O(2). The antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine, desferrioxamine, and the inhibitor of NQO1 dicumarol, protected against apoptosis induction by all compounds investigated, but to a different extent. The results of multiparameter regression analysis indicate that RH1 and MeDZQ most likely induce apoptosis via NQO1-linked formation of alkylating species but not via NQO1-linked redox cycling. (+info)
Versatile and stereoselective syntheses of orthogonally protected beta-methylcysteine and beta-methyllanthionine.
(59/274)[reaction: see text] Lantibiotics are a class of lanthionine (and/or beta-methyllanthionine)-containing peptides with antibioitic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. As part of our research effort directed toward the synthesis and mechanistic study of the lantibiotic peptide mersacidin (1), we report stereoselective syntheses of orthogonally protected beta-methylcysteine (beta-MeCys) and beta-methyllanthionine (beta-MeLan), two key nonnatural amino acid components of the mersacidin architecture. (+info)
Prognostic factors and outcome of core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia patients with t(8;21) differ from those of patients with inv(16): a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
(60/274)PURPOSE: Because both t(8;21) and inv(16) disrupt core binding factor (CBF) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and confer relatively favorable prognoses, these cytogenetic groups are often treated similarly. Recent studies, however, have shown different gene profiling for the two groups, underscoring potential biologic differences. Therefore, we sought to determine whether these two cytogenetic groups should also be considered separate entities from a clinical standpoint. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 144 consecutive adults with t(8;21) and 168 with inv(16) treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B front-line studies. We compared pretreatment features, probability of achieving complete remission (CR), overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) between the two groups. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 6.4 years, for CBF AML as a whole, the CR rate was 88%, 5-year OS was 50% and CIR was 53%. After adjusting for covariates, patients with t(8;21) had shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5; P = .045) and survival after first relapse (HR = 1.7; P = .009) than patients with inv(16). Unexpectedly, race was an important predictor for t(8;21) AML, in that nonwhites failed induction more often (odds ratio = 5.7; P = .006) and had shorter OS than whites when certain secondary cytogenetic abnormalities were present. In patients with t(8;21) younger than 60 years, type of induction also correlated with relapse risk. For inv(16) AML, secondary cytogenetic abnormalities (especially +22) and male sex predicted better outcome. CONCLUSION: When the prognostic impact of race, secondary cytogenetic abnormalities, sex, and response to salvage treatment is considered, t(8;21) and inv(16) AMLs seem to be distinct clinical entities and should be stratified and reported separately. (+info)
Development of useful reactions involving tandem cyclizations based on the novel reactivities of allenic compounds.
(61/274)This review highlights author's recent study on allenic compounds. In the first section, organocopper-mediated ring-opening reaction of ethynylaziridines and palladium-catalyzed reductive synthesis of allenes including those which are not accessible by other means, are described. In the second section, palladium-catalyzed stereoselective cyclization of allenes and tandem reaction leading to aziridines, pyrrolidines, benzoisoindoles, and cyclopropanes are presented. The final section presents aziridination and medium-ring formation by intramolecular reaction of bromoallenes, which are scarcely investigated until quite recently. The latter reaction is based on our recent discovery that bromoallenes can act as allylic dication equivalents in the presence of a palladium catalyst and alcohol. (+info)
A fully dissociated compound of plant origin for inflammatory gene repression.
(62/274)The identification of selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modifiers, which separate transactivation and transrepression properties, represents an important research goal for steroid pharmacology. Although the gene-activating properties of GR are mainly associated with undesirable side effects, its negative interference with the activity of transcription factors, such as NF-kappaB, greatly contributes to its antiinflammatory and immune-suppressive capacities. In the present study, we found that Compound A (CpdA), a plant-derived phenyl aziridine precursor, although not belonging to the steroidal class of GR-binding ligands, does mediate gene-inhibitory effects by activating GR. We demonstrate that CpdA exerts an antiinflammatory potential by down-modulating TNF-induced proinflammatory gene expression, such as IL-6 and E-selectin, but, interestingly, does not at all enhance glucocorticoid response element-driven genes or induce GR binding to glucocorticoid response element-dependent genes in vivo. We further show that the specific gene-repressive effect of CpdA depends on the presence of functional GR, displaying a differential phosphorylation status with CpdA as compared with dexamethasone treatment. The antiinflammatory mechanism involves both a reduction of the in vivo DNA-binding activity of p65 as well as an interference with the transactivation potential of NF-kappaB. Finally, we present evidence that CpdA is as effective as dexamethasone in counteracting acute inflammation in vivo and does not cause a hyperglycemic side effect. Taken together, this compound may be a lead compound of a class of antiinflammatory agents with fully dissociated properties and might thus hold great potential for therapeutic use. (+info)
Development of useful reactions based on the novel reactivities of allenic compounds and their application to tandem cyclizations.
(63/274)This review highlights a recent study on allenic compounds by the author's group. In the first section, the organocopper-mediated ring-opening reaction of ethynylaziridines and palladium-catalyzed reductive synthesis of allenes are described. In the second section, palladium-catalyzed stereoselective cyclization of allenes, including the tandem reaction, leading to aziridines, pyrrolidines, benzoisoindoles, and cyclopropanes is presented. The final section reviews aziridination and medium-ring formation due to the intramolecular reaction of bromoallenes. The latter reaction is based on the author's recent discovery that bromoallenes can act as allylic dication equivalents in the presence of a palladium catalyst and alcohol. (+info)
New enzyme for reductive cancer chemotherapy, YieF, and its improvement by directed evolution.
(64/274)Reductive prodrugs, mitomycin C and 5-aziridinyl-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB 1954), are nontoxic in their native form but become highly toxic upon reduction. Their effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy can be enhanced by delivering to tumors enzymes with improved prodrug reduction kinetics. We report the discovery of a new prodrug-reducing enzyme, YieF, from Escherichia coli, and the improvement of its kinetics for reducing mitomycin C and CB 1954. A YieF-derived enzyme, Y6, killed HeLa spinner cells with >or=5-fold efficiency than the wild-type enzymes, YieF and NfsA, at a variety of drug and enzyme concentrations and incubation times. With adhered HeLa cells and Salmonella typhimurium SL 7838 bacteria as enzyme delivery vehicle, at least an order of magnitude less of Y6-producing bacteria were required to kill >90% of tumor cells compared with bacteria expressing the wild-type enzymes, which at a comparable level killed < 5% of the cells. Thus, Y6 is a promising enzyme for use in cancer chemotherapy, and Salmonella strain SL 7838, which specifically targets tumors, may be used to deliver the prodrug-activating enzymes to tumors. (+info)