Mechanism of cell death induced by the novel enzyme-prodrug combination, nitroreductase/CB1954, and identification of synergism with 5-fluorouracil.
(41/274)Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) utilising the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase delivered by a replication-defective adenovirus vector to activate the prodrug CB1954 is a promising strategy currently undergoing clinical trials in patients with a range of cancers. An understanding of the mechanism of tumour cell death induced by activated CB1954 will facilitate this clinical development. Here, we report that activated CB1954 kills cells predominantly by caspase-dependent apoptosis. This may have important implications for the generation of immune-mediated bystander effects. Further, the use of a replication-defective adenovirus vector to deliver nitroreductase may negatively affect cellular apoptotic pathways stimulated by activated CB1954. Finally, examination of nitroreductase/CB1954 in combination with conventional chemotherapy reveals a synergistic interaction with 5-fluorouracil. These data will facilitate the further development and future clinical trial design of this novel therapy. (+info)
Generation of Escherichia coli nitroreductase mutants conferring improved cell sensitization to the prodrug CB1954.
(42/274)Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) activates the prodrug CB1954 to a cytotoxic derivative, allowing selective sensitization of NTR-expressing cells or tumors to the prodrug. This is one of several enzyme-prodrug combinations that are under development for cancer gene therapy, and the system has now entered clinical trials. Enhancing the catalytic efficiency of NTR for CB1954 could improve its therapeutic potential. From the crystal structure of an enzyme-ligand complex, we identified nine amino acid residues within the active site that could directly influence prodrug binding and catalysis. Mutant libraries were generated for each of these residues and clones screened for their ability to sensitize E. coli to CB1954. Amino acid substitutions at six positions conferred markedly greater sensitivity to CB1954 than did the WT enzyme; the best mutants, at residue F124, resulted in approximately 5-fold improvement. Using an adenovirus vector, we introduced the F124K NTR mutant into human SK-OV-3 ovarian carcinoma cells and showed it to be approximately 5-fold more potent in sensitizing the cells to CB1954 at the clinically relevant prodrug concentration of 1 micro M than was the WT enzyme. Enhanced mutant NTRs such as F124K should improve the efficacy of the NTR/CB1954 combination in cancer gene therapy. (+info)
Neuroactive steroid interactions with voltage-dependent anion channels: lack of relationship to GABA(A) receptor modulation and anesthesia.
(43/274)Neuroactive steroids modulate the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in brain; this is the presumed basis of their action as anesthetics. In a previous study using the neuroactive steroid analog, (3alpha,5beta)-6-azi-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (6-AziP), as a photoaffinity-labeling reagent, we showed that voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC-1) was the predominant protein labeled in brain. Antisera to VDAC-1 were shown to coimmunoprecipitate GABA(A) receptors, suggesting a functional relationship between steroid binding to VDAC-1 and modulation of GABA(A) receptor function. This study examines the contribution of steroid binding to VDAC proteins to modulation of GABA(A) receptor function and anesthesia. Photolabeling of 35-kDa protein with [(3)H]6-AziP was reduced 85% in brain membranes prepared from VDAC-1-deficient mice but was unaffected by deficiency of VDAC-3. The photolabeled 35-kDa protein in membranes from VDAC-1-deficient mice was identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry as VDAC-2. The absence of VDAC-1 or VDAC-3 had no effect on the ability of neuroactive steroids to modulate GABA(A) receptor function as evidenced by radioligand ([(35)S] t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate) binding or by electrophysiological studies. Electrophysiological studies also showed that neuroactive steroids modulate GABA(A) receptor function normally in VDAC-2-deficient fibroblasts transfected with alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2) GABA(A) receptor subunits. Finally, the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone [(3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one] produced anesthesia (loss of righting reflex) in VDAC-1- and VDAC-3-deficient mice, and there was no difference in the recovery time between the VDAC-deficient mice and wild-type controls. These data indicate that neuroactive steroid binding to VDAC-1, -2, or -3 is unlikely to mediate GABA(A) receptor modulation or anesthesia. (+info)
Structures of platinum(II) complexes of 2-aminomethylaziridine and S-2-aminomethylazetidine and correlation of anticancer activities of (2-aminomethylazacycloalkane)platinum(II) complexes with the geometry of the chelate rings formed with platinum(II).
(44/274)The spectroscopic properties of platinum(II) complexes with 2-aminomethyl-derivatives of small-membered 1-aza-cycloalkane, i.e., =2-aminomethylaziridine=azida and S-2-aminomethylazetidine=S-azeda, and the crystal structures of their dichloro complexes demonstrate that the conformation of the fused three- (azida) or four- (S-azeda) and five-membered chelate ring formed by the coordination of S-azida and S-azeda to platinum(II) has an S(N) absolute configuration at the secondary amine site and that the two alkyl groups extend axially from the five-membered chelate ring. The chelate ring of the azida is more planar than the S-azeda or other 2-aminomethyl-1-azacycloalkanes. The anticancer activity reported for azeda and 2-aminomethylpyrrolidine appears to be related to their coordination structure, namely the presence of cis-fused successive rings. (+info)
Stereodivergent synthesis of chiral 2-alkenylaziridines: palladium(0)-catalyzed 2,3-cis-selective aziridination and base-mediated 2,3-trans-selective aziridination.
(45/274)Whereas treatment of the allylic mesylates of N-protected 2-alkyl-4-amino-(E)-2-alken-1-ols with sodium hydride in DMF yields exclusively the corresponding thermodynamically less stable 2,3-trans-2-alkenyl-3-alkylaziridines, exposure of the methyl carbonates of N-protected 2-alkyl-4-amino-(E)-2-alken-1-ols to a catalytic amount of Pd(PPh(3))(4) in THF or 1,4-dioxane affords predominantly the corresponding thermodynamically more stable 2,3-cis-2-alkenyl-3-alkylaziridines. The kinetically favored trans-selective aziridination would be attributed to the allylic 1,3-strain in aza-anionic intermediates. The conformational analysis of the sterically highly congested 2-alkenylaziridines thus obtained is also presented. (+info)
Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods for the production of arbovirus antigens inactivated by binary ethylenimine.
(46/274)BACKGROUND: Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods have been developed and standardised for the safe and reproducible production of inactivated arbovirus antigens which are appropriate for use in diagnostic serological applications. METHODS: To optimise the maximum titre of growth during the propagation of arboviruses, the multiplicity of infection and choice of cell line were investigated using stocks of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus grown in both mosquito and mammalian cell lines. To standardise and improve the efficacy of the inactivation of arboviral suspensions, stocks of Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Alfuy virus were chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 3 mM. Aliquots were then taken at hourly intervals and crude inactivation rates were determined for each virus using a plaque assay. To ensure complete inactivation, the same aliquots were each passaged 3 times in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells and the presence of viral growth was detected using an immunofluorescent assay. For larger quantities of viral suspensions, centrifugation on an isopycnic sucrose density gradient or cross-flow filtration was used to produce concentrated, pure antigens or partially concentrated, semi-purified antigens respectively. RESULTS: The results of the propagation experiments suggested that the maximum viral titres obtained for both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus were affected by the incubation period and choice of cell line, rather than the use of different multiplicity of infection values. Results of the binary ethylenimine inactivation trial suggested that standardised periods of 5 or 8 hours would be suitable to ensure effective and complete inactivation for a number of different arboviral antigens. CONCLUSION: Two methods used to prepare inactivated arbovirus antigens have been standardised to minimise production failure and expenditure and to provide reagents that conform to the highest quality and safety requirements of a diagnostic serology laboratory. The antigens are suitable for use in either enzyme linked immunosorbent assays or haemagglutination inhibition assays and the optimised protocols can be directly applied to produce antigens from new or emerging arboviral pathogens. (+info)
2-Amino metabolites are key mediators of CB 1954 and SN 23862 bystander effects in nitroreductase GDEPT.
(47/274)An important feature of gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy is that prodrug activation can provide diffusible cytotoxic metabolites capable of generating a local bystander effect in tumours. Activation of the aziridinyl dinitrobenzamide CB 1954 by E. coli nitroreductase (NTR) provides a bystander effect assumed to be due to the potently cytotoxic 4-hydroxylamine metabolite. We show that there are four cytotoxic extracellular metabolites of CB 1954 in cultures of NTR-expressing tumour cells (the 2- and 4-hydroxylamines and their corresponding amines). The 4-hydroxylamine is the most cytotoxic in DNA crosslink repair defective cells, but the 2-amino derivative (CB 10-236) is of similar potency to the 4-hydroxylamine in human tumour cell lines. Importantly, CB 10-236 has much superior diffusion properties to the 4-hydroxylamine in multicellular layers grown from the SiHa human cervical carcinoma cell line. These results suggest that the 2-amine, not the 4-hydroxylamine, is the major bystander metabolite when CB 1954 is activated by NTR in tumours. The corresponding dinitrobenzamide nitrogen mustard SN 23862 is reduced by NTR to form a single extracellular metabolite (also the 2-amine), which has superior cytotoxic potency and diffusion properties to the CB 1954 metabolites. These results are consistent with the reported high bystander efficiency of SN 23862 as an NTR prodrug in multicellular layers and tumour xenografts. (+info)
Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: intratumoral administration of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding nitroreductase to patients with resectable liver cancer.
(48/274)PURPOSE: Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy depends on selective delivery of virus encoding a prodrug-activating enzyme to tumor, followed by systemic treatment with prodrug to achieve high levels of the activated cytotoxic at the intended site of action. The use of the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase to activate CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) to a short lived, highly toxic DNA cross-linking agent has been demonstrated in tumor xenografts. In this study, we report the first clinical trial investigating the feasibility, safety, and transgene expression of a replication-defective adenovirus encoding nitroreductase (CTL102) in patients with liver tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with resectable primary or secondary (colorectal) liver cancer received a single dose of CTL102 delivered by direct intratumoral inoculation 3 to 8 days before surgical resection. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were treated with escalating doses of CTL102 (range, 10(8)-5 x 10(11) virus particles). The vector was well tolerated with minimal side effects, had a short half-life in the circulation, and stimulated a robust antibody response. Dose-related increases in tumoral nitroreductase expression measured by immunohistochemical analysis have been observed. CONCLUSION: Direct intratumoral inoculation of CTL102 to patients with primary and secondary liver cancer is feasible and well tolerated. The high level of nitroreductase expression observed at 1 to 5 x 10(11) virus particles mandates further studies in patients with inoperable tumors who will receive CTL102 and CB1954. (+info)