A novel acetyltransferase found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b that detoxifies a proline analogue, azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
(9/140)L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC), a toxic four-membered ring analogue of L-proline, is transported into the cells via proline transporters. It causes misfolding of the proteins into which it is incorporated competitively with L-proline and thereby inhibits the growth of the cells. We recently have discovered, on the chromosome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b, a novel gene MPR1 required for the resistance of Sigma1278 background strains to toxic AZC. This gene was missing in the particular yeast strain used for the genomic sequence determination. Although the protein sequence was homologous to that of the S. cerevisiae transcriptional regulator, Mpr1p did not affect the expression of genes involved in proline uptake. However, gene expression in Escherichia coli and enzymatic analysis showed that the MPR1 gene encodes a novel AZC acetyltransferase, by which L-proline itself and other L-proline analogues are not acetylated. Mpr1p was considered to be a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily based on the results of an Ala-scan mutagenesis through the highly conserved region involved in binding acetyl-CoA in members of the superfamily. Our findings suggest that Mpr1p detoxifies AZC by acetylating it in the cytoplasm. This enzyme might be utilized as a selective marker in a wide variety of organisms, because the cells expressing the MPR1 gene acquire the AZC-resistant phenotype. (+info)
Combination therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a calcium antagonist: beyond the renoprotective effects of ACE inhibitor monotherapy in a spontaneous hypertensive rat with renal ablation.
(10/140)To assess the renal benefits of combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and calcium antagonism, we studied the antihypertensive and renoprotective effects of temocapril (TMP) alone or in combination with azelnidipine (AZN) in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure. Male 5/6-nephrectomized SHR/Izumo rats were randomly assigned to receive vehicle (control group), TMP (TMP group; 10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), AZN (AZN group; 3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), or both (TMP+AZN group) orally for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urinary excretion of albumin (UalbV) were measured every 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum creatinine (Scr), heart weight (HW), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured and the remnant kidneys were examined to determine the index of glomerular sclerosis (IGS). SBP and UalbV in the control group increased progressively throughout the experimental period. TMP, AZN, and TMP+AZN blocked the development of hypertension. TMP+AZN did not enhance the antihypertensive effects of either TMP or AZN used singly. TMP, AZN, and TMP+AZN all significantly decreased the UalbV, Scr, BUN, and HW/body weight (BW) ratio. The level of UalbV and the HW/BW ratio in the TMP+AZN group were significantly lower than those in the TMP and AZN groups, and the level of Scr in the TMP+AZN group was significantly lower than that in the TMP group. TMP, AZN, and TMP+AZN all significantly protected against an increase in the IGS. The IGS in the TMP+AZN group was significantly lower than that in the TMP and AZN groups. These results indicate that both TMP and AZN have antihypertensive and renoprotective effects in this model. They also suggest that simultaneous administration of TMP and AZN provides greater renoprotective effects than TMP alone. (+info)
FRD3, a member of the multidrug and toxin efflux family, controls iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis.
(11/140)We present the cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis gene, FRD3, involved in iron homeostasis. Plants carrying any of the three alleles of frd3 constitutively express three strategy I iron deficiency responses and misexpress a number of iron deficiency-regulated genes. Mutant plants also accumulate approximately twofold excess iron, fourfold excess manganese, and twofold excess zinc in their shoots. frd3-3 was first identified as man1. The FRD3 gene is expressed at detectable levels in roots but not in shoots and is predicted to encode a membrane protein belonging to the multidrug and toxin efflux family. Other members of this family have been implicated in a variety of processes and are likely to transport small organic molecules. The phenotypes of frd3 mutant plants, which are consistent with a defect in either iron deficiency signaling or iron distribution, indicate that FRD3 is an important component of iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis. (+info)
Misfolded proteins are competent to mediate a subset of the responses to heat shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
(12/140)Cells may sense heat shock via the accumulation of thermally misfolded proteins. To explore this possibility, we determined the effect of protein misfolding on gene expression in the absence of temperature changes. The imino acid analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC) is incorporated into protein competitively with proline and causes reduced thermal stability or misfolding. We found that adding AZC to yeast at sublethal concentrations sufficient to arrest proliferation selectively induced expression of heat shock factor-regulated genes to a maximum of 27-fold and that these inductions were dependent on heat shock factor. AZC treatment also selectively repressed expression of the ribosomal protein genes, another heat shock factor-dependent process, to a maximum of 20-fold. AZC treatment thus strongly and selectively activates heat shock factor. AZC treatment causes this activation by misfolding proteins. Induction of HSP42 by AZC treatment required protein synthesis; treatment with ethanol, which can also misfold proteins, activated heat shock factor, but treatment with canavanine, an arginine analog less potent than AZC at misfolding proteins, did not. However, misfolded proteins did not strongly induce the stress response element regulon. We conclude that misfolded proteins are competent to specifically trigger activation of heat shock factor in response to heat shock. (+info)
Azelnidipine and amlodipine: a comparison of their pharmacokinetics and effects on ambulatory blood pressure.
(13/140)We objected: 1) To compare the effects of azelnidipine and amlodipine on 24-h blood pressure; 2) To monitor the plasma concentration vs. the time profile in order to assess the association between pharmacokinetics and hypotensive activity after administration of either drug for 6 weeks. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured by 24-h monitoring with a portable automatic monitor in a randomized double-blind study of 46 patients with essential hypertension. Azelnidipine 16 mg (23 patients) or amlodipine 5 mg (23 patients) was administered once daily for 6 weeks. Pharmacokinetics were analyzed after the last dose was taken. Both drugs showed similar effects on the office blood pressure and pulse rate. During 24-h monitoring, both drugs caused a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 13 mmHg and had a similar hypotensive profile during the daytime period (07:00-21:30). The pulse rate decreased by 2 beats/min in the azelnidipine group, whereas it significantly increased by 4 beats/min in the amlodipine group. Similar trends in the blood pressure and pulse rate were observed during the nighttime (22:00-6:30) and over 24 h. Excessive blood pressure reduction during the nighttime was not seen in either group. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the plasma half-life (t1/2) of amlodipine was 38.5 +/- 19.8 h and that of azelnidipine was 8.68 +/- 1.33 h. Despite this difference in pharmacokinetics, the hypotensive effects of amlodipine and azelnidipine were similar throughout the 24-h administration period. (+info)
Metabotropic receptor-mediated Ca2+ signaling elevates mitochondrial Ca2+ and stimulates oxidative metabolism in hippocampal slice cultures.
(14/140)Metabotropic receptors modulate numerous cellular processes by intracellular Ca2+ signaling, but less is known about their role in regulating mitochondrial metabolic function within the CNS. In this study, we demonstrate in area CA3 of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures that glutamatergic, serotonergic, and muscarinic metabotropic receptor ligands, namely trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and carbachol, transiently increase mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) as recorded by changes in Rhod-2 fluorescence, stimulate mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as revealed by elevations in NAD(P)H fluorescence, and induce K+ outward currents as monitored by rapid increases in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o). Carbachol (1-1,000 microM) elevated NAD(P)H fluorescence by +info)
Characterization of novel acetyltransferases found in budding and fission yeasts that detoxify a proline analogue, azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
(15/140)We recently found that budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae sigma1278b, but not genome project strain S288C, has a gene conferring resistance to L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC), a toxic four-membered ring analogue of L-proline. Also, the gene, designated as MPR1, encodes a novel acetyltransferase that detoxifies AZC via acetylation. We now report the results of subsequent work. On a homology search with MPR1, we detected a gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This gene, designated as ppr1(+) (pombe MPR1), is responsible for the AZC-resistance of S. pombe as judged from the results of gene disruption and overexpression experiments. Escherichia coli cells expressing ppr1(+), like ones expressing MPR1, were resistant to AZC and produced an AZC acetyltransferase. We further found that the enzymes encoded by MPR1 and ppr1(+) were homodimers, and catalyzed the acetylation of AZC but not any other L-proline-related compounds. Ppr1p was more thermostable than Mpr1p, although Ppr1p had a lower optimum temperature than Mpr1p. The higher AZC acetylation activity of Mpr1p, in comparison to that of Ppr1p, was attributed to the larger k(cat)/K(m) value for acetyl-CoA of Mpr1p than that of Ppr1p. (+info)
Role of nicotianamine in the intracellular delivery of metals and plant reproductive development.
(16/140)Nicotianamine (NA), a chelator of metals, is ubiquitously present in higher plants. Nicotianamine aminotransferase (NAAT) catalyzes the amino group transfer of NA in the biosynthetic pathway of phytosiderophores and is essential for iron acquisition in graminaceous plants. The gene that encodes NAAT from barley was introduced into the nongraminaceous plant tobacco, which produces NA but not phytosiderophores. Transgenic tobacco plants (naat tobacco) that constitutively expressed the NAAT gene had young leaves with interveinal chlorosis and flowers that were abnormally shaped and sterile. Endogenous NA was consumed as a result of NAAT overproduction in naat tobacco. The resulting NA shortage caused disorders in internal metal transport, leading to these abnormal phenotypes. In addition to its role in long-distance metal transport, NA may be involved in the regulation of metal transfer within the cells. These results suggest that a shortage of NA impaired the functions of metal-requiring proteins, including transcription factors. (+info)