Successful reproduction requires the function of Arabidopsis Yellow Stripe-Like1 and Yellow Stripe-Like3 metal-nicotianamine transporters in both vegetative and reproductive structures.
A 9 bp cis-element in the promoters of class I small heat shock protein genes on chromosome 3 in rice mediates L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and heat shock responses.
Studies on the mechanism of antihypertensive action by nicotianamine.
(75/140)Nicotianamine (NA), which is obtained from vegetables, lowers blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system, and we clarified that NA preferentially inhibits the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-a zinc-containing enzyme. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism of antihypertensive action of NA through the Magnus method by using rat aortic blood vessels. Angiotensin I-induced contractions were inhibited by NA in a concentration-dependant manner. Because NA did not inhibit angiotensin II-induced contractions, it was believed that NA inhibited ACE activity in vascular smooth muscles. NA did not affect KCl-induced contractions, but it affected norepinephrine-induced contractions to a small extent. NA exerted similar effects on endothelium-denuded and endothelium-intact blood vessels. Therefore, the antihypertensive action of NA did not play a role in the opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels, but this effect influenced vasoconstriction by the activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors. These results suggest that after absorption from the intestinal tract, NA may exert antihypertensive effects via 2 mechanisms: direct inhibition of ACE in vascular smooth muscle and activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors. (+info)
Azelnidipine protects myocardium in hyperglycemia-induced cardiac damage.
Phytosiderophore efflux transporters are crucial for iron acquisition in graminaceous plants.
Azelnidipine and amlodipine anti-coronary atherosclerosis trial in hypertensive patients undergoing coronary intervention by serial volumetric intravascular ultrasound analysis in Juntendo University (ALPS-J).
(78/140)BACKGROUND: A previous study reported that amlodipine retarded coronary plaque progression in patients with coronary artery disease. The goal of this multicenter study was to determine which calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) other than amlodipine attenuated the progression of plaque volume (PV) accessed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). METHODS AND RESULTS: ALPS-J was a prospective, randomized open-label study conducted at 5 centers. Patients who had hypertension and were scheduled for coronary intervention were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 16 mg/day of azelnidipine or 5mg/day of amlodipine administered for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percent change in coronary PV measured by IVUS. Between 2007 and 2009, 199 patients were enrolled; 115 had evaluable IVUS images at both baseline and after 48 weeks of treatment. Blood pressure significantly reduced to 128/68 mmHg at follow-up. The lipid profiles in the 2 groups were comparable (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 97 mg/dl). The %change in PV showed a significant regression of 4.67 and 4.85% in the azelnidipine and amlodipine groups, respectively. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference in %change PV between the 2 groups (0.18%, 95% confidence interval 4.62 to 4.98%) did not exceed the pre-defined non-inferiority margin of 6.525%. CONCLUSIONS: ALPS-J demonstrated that azelnidipine was not inferior to amlodipine for primary efficacy. In addition to standard medical therapy, dihydropyridine CCBs will retard PV progression in hypertensive patients. (+info)
Phloem-specific expression of Yang cycle genes and identification of novel Yang cycle enzymes in Plantago and Arabidopsis.
Comparative effects of azelnidipine and amlodipine on myocardial function and mortality after ischemia/reperfusion in dogs.
(80/140)Effects of azelnidipine were examined and compared with those of amlodipine on stunned myocardium in dogs. The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was ligated for 20 min and subsequently released for 60 min. A vehicle, azelnidipine (0.3 mg/kg), or amlodipine (0.3 or 1 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 20 min before LAD ligation. The heart rate increased after a depressor response in the presence of amlodipine, while it decreased despite a decrease in arterial pressures in the presence of azelnidipine. After reperfusion, the coronary flow (CF) significantly increased in the presence of azelnidipine, but did not change with amlodipine after reperfusion. A positive inotropic effect was observed after treatment with both calcium antagonists. Ischemia significantly decreased the percentage of segment shortening (%SS) in all groups. Treatment with both calcium antagonists significantly increased %SS after reperfusion, although high-energy phosphate levels did not improve in the presence of calcium antagonists 60 min after reperfusion. Mortality with azelnidipine was significantly lower than that with 0.3 mg/kg amlodipine immediately after reperfusion. In conclusion, improvement in myocardial stunning after pretreatment with azelnidipine is associated with an increase in CF after reperfusion. The negative chronotropic action may have contributed to decreased mortality due to reperfusion arrhythmias. Azelnidipine is more beneficial than amlodipine and may provide an additional advantage to patients with angina and hypertension. (+info)