IRF-1 deficiency skews the differentiation of dendritic cells toward plasmacytoid and tolerogenic features.
Members of the IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) family are transcriptional regulators that play essential roles in the homeostasis and function of the immune system. Recent studies indicate a direct involvement of some members of the family in the development of different subsets of dendritic cells (DC). Here, we report that IRF-1 is a potent modulator of the development and functional maturation of DC. IRF-1-deficient mice (IRF-1(-/-)) exhibited a predominance of plasmacytoid DC and a selective reduction of conventional DC, especially the CD8alpha(+) subset. IRF-1(-/-) splenic DC were markedly impaired in their ability to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12. By contrast, they expressed high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta, and the tolerogenic enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase. As a consequence, IRF-1(-/-) DC were unable to undergo full maturation and retained plasmacytoid and tolerogenic characteristics following virus infection ex vivo and in vivo. Accordingly, DC from IRF-1(-/-) mice were less efficient in stimulating the proliferation of allogeneic T cells and instead, induced an IL-10-mediated, suppressive activity in allogeneic CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Together, these results indicate that IRF-1 is a key regulator of DC differentiation and maturation, exerting a variety of effects on the functional activation and tolerogenic potential of these cells. (+info)
Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75.
Pathogenesis of two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in chickens and turkeys.
Nine serologic types of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) have been recognized. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized virus, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two strains of APMV-2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks, and 4-wk-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was more than 168 hr for both strains, and their intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) was zero, indicating that these viruses are nonpathogenic in chickens. When inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old chicks, neither strain caused disease or replicated detectably in the brain. This suggests that the zero ICPI value of APMV-2 reflects the inability of the virus to grow in neural cells. Groups of twelve 4-wk-old SPF chickens and turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with either strain, and three birds per group were euthanatized on days 2, 4, 6, and 14 postinoculation for analysis. There were no overt clinical signs of illnesses, although all birds seroconverted by day 6. The viruses were isolated predominantly from the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of a large amount of viral antigens in epithelial linings of respiratory and alimentary tracts. There also was evidence of systemic spread even though the cleavage site of the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin protease cleavage site. (+info)