Characterization of the haemorrhagic enteritis virus genome and the sequence of the putative penton base and core protein genes.
(49/57)Haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) is a member of a genetically ill-defined group within the genus Aviadenovirus which causes significant clinical disease in gallinaceous fowl. Using DNA obtained from a low virulence isolate of HEV passed in turkeys, we developed a genomic restriction map and estimated an apparent genomic length of 25.5 kb. No evidence for extensive DNA hybridization was found between the HEV genome and either the hexon or penton base genes of human adenovirus 2 (HAdV-2) and fowl adenovirus 10 (FAdV-10). The HEV penton base gene was identified by PCR using primers based on conserved adenoviral DNA sequences. The penton base gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and detected by anti-HEV serum in both colony and denaturing gel immunoblots. DNA sequencing revealed a putative penton base ORF with a predicted amino acid sequence showing approximately 39.0%, 53.0% and 44.2% similarity with the penton base of HAdV-2, human adenovirus 40 (HAdV-40) and FAdV-10, respectively. The penton base gene was located at 43.3-48.6 m.u. on the HEV genome and had a remarkably low G+C content (33.8%). DNA sequencing also revealed ORFs for putative core proteins resembling pVII, p-mu and a partial ORF similar to pVI (hexon-associated protein) of HAdV-2 and HAdV-40. The results support the claim that HEV represents a distinct group of viruses within the genus Aviadenovirus. (+info)
The complete DNA sequence and genomic organization of the avian adenovirus CELO.
(50/57)The complete DNA sequence of the avian adenovirus chicken embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus (FAV-1) is reported here. The genome was found to be 43,804 bp in length, approximately 8 kb longer than those of the human subgenus C adenoviruses (Ad2 and Ad5). This length is supported by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of genomes isolated from several related FAV-1 isolates (Indiana C and OTE). The genes for major viral structural proteins (Illa, penton base, hexon, pVI, and pVIII), as well as the 52,000-molecular-weight (52K) and 100K proteins and the early-region 2 genes and IVa2, are present in the expected locations in the genome. CELO virus encodes two fiber proteins and a different set of the DNA-packaging core proteins, which may be important in condensing the longer CELO virus genome. No pV or pIX genes are present. Most surprisingly, CELO virus possesses no identifiable E1, E3, and E4 regions. There is 5 kb at the left end of the CELO virus genome and 15 kb at the right end with no homology to Ad2. The sequences are rich in open reading frames, and it is likely that these encode functions that replace the missing El, E3, and E4 functions. (+info)
Identification of a novel antiapoptotic protein, GAM-1, encoded by the CELO adenovirus.
(51/57)We have developed a simple screening method to identify genes that mimic bcl-2 or adenovirus E1B 19K in enhancing cell survival after transfection and have used this method to identify such a gene in the avian adenovirus CELO. The gene encodes a novel 30-kDa nuclear protein, which we have named GAM-1, that functions comparably to Bcl-2 and adenovirus E1B 19K in blocking apoptosis. However, GAM-1 has no sequence homology to Bcl-2, E1B 19K, or any other known antiapoptotic proteins and thus defines a novel antiapoptotic function. (+info)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the egg drop syndrome virus: an intermediate between mastadenoviruses and aviadenoviruses.
(52/57)The complete nucleotide sequence of an avian adenovirus, the egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus, was determined. The total genome length is 33,213 nucleotides, resulting in a molecular weight of 21.9 x 10(6). The GC content is only 42.5%. Between map units 3.5 and 76.9, the distribution of open reading frames with homology to known genes is similar to that reported for other mammalian and avian adenoviruses. However, no homologies to adenovirus genes such as E1A, pIX, pV, and E3 could be found. Outside this region, several open reading frames were identified without any obvious homology to known adenovirus proteins. In the region organized similarly as other adenoviral genomes, most homologies were found to an ovine adenovirus (OAV strain 287). The highest level of amino acid identity was found for the hexon proteins of EDS and OAV. The virus-associated RNA (VA RNA) was identified thanks to the homology with the VA RNA of fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAV1). Similarities with FAV1 were also found in the fiber protein. Our results demonstrate that the avian EDS virus represents an intermediate between mammalian and avian adenoviruses. The nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of the EDS virus reflect the heterogeneity of the aviadenovirus genus and the Adenoviridae family. (+info)
Gastrointestinal pathogenicity of adenoviruses and reoviruses isolated from broiler chickens in Alabama.
(53/57)Adenoviruses and reoviruses isolated from commercial broiler chickens were evaluated for gastrointestinal pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free Leghorn chickens. The viruses were originally isolated from either the proventriculus or a gastrointestinal pool of tissues of broiler chickens with proventriculitis or enteritis. Isolates were cloned by terminal dilution. Day-old chickens were inoculated by oral and ocular routes with undiluted tissue culture fluids (titers of 10-10 TCID50/ml) and then examined at necropsy on days 5, 10, and 15 postinoculation. Chickens in all virus groups (but not the control group) developed wet, unformed fecal droppings that persisted for the duration of the study. Mild lesions occurred in reovirus-inoculated chickens and included hyperplasia of lymphocyte aggregates in various organs and mild gizzard erosions. Chickens inoculated with adenovirus isolates developed marked gizzard erosions and necrotizing pancreatitis as well as mild proventriculitis. Intranuclear viral inclusion bodies occurred in gizzard epithelium and pancreatic acinar cells at the sites of lesions. Lymphocytic atrophy occurred in the bursa of Fabricius. Respective viruses were reisolated from proventriculus and duodenum collected from chickens of each group; no viruses were isolated from controls. Under the conditions of this study, adenovirus isolates were more pathogenic than the reovirus isolates in the digestive system. (+info)
Transcriptional organization of the avian adenovirus CELO.
(54/57)A detailed map of the transcriptional organization of the CELO virus genome was produced. Recent computer analysis of CELO virus has indicated the presence of 38 putative open reading frames (ORFs). This study, based on analysis of the transcriptional products of CELO in vitro, confirmed the presence of RNAs for 26 of these 38 ORFs. All of the results were obtained by cDNA isolation or specific reverse transcriptase PCR. Observation of ORF transcription kinetics postinfection revealed the existence of early and late expression, with the earliest starting at 2 h postinfection. The 5' untranslated regions of some RNAs were also studied, and this revealed the existence of a bipartite leader sequence, comparable in structure to the tripartite leader of mastadenovirus. The leader most probably involved in transcriptional activity was observed in most of the structural protein genes of the CELO virus genome. This suggests some homology in transcriptional organization between the avian adenovirus CELO and known mastadenoviruses such as human adenovirus. (+info)
Sequence and transcriptional analysis of terminal regions of the fowl adenovirus type 8 genome.
(55/57)Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) type 1, CELO strain has no homologies to mastadenovirus E1A, E1B, E3 and E4, which regulate virus gene expression, DNA replication and virus-host interaction. Similarly, the right 5 kb and left 15 kb ends of CELO virus DNA are non-homologous to mastadenoviruses. To compare CELO virus with another FAdV, 7.5 kb of the left and 17 kb of the right ends of FAdV type 8 (strain A-2A) were sequenced and nine and 17 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively, were found. This FAdV-8 genome was similar to CELO virus in that (1) the central region contained the major structural protein genes including the fibre, pVIII, 100K, late 33K and pIVa2 genes, which were in the same order as in mastadenoviruses, (2) no homologues of mastadenovirus E1A, E1B, E3 and E4 were found in the ends, and (3) the left 6 kb and the right 13 kb ends showed no homology to mastadenoviruses. Several genomic features were unique to FAdV-8 compared to CELO virus. FAdV-8 contained one fibre gene in contrast to two in CELO virus. Three of eight unassigned ORFs in the left and five of 13 unassigned ORFs in the right ends were unique compared to CELO virus. Two sets of tandem repeats, one with five identical 33 bp repeats and the other with more than ten identical 135 bp repeats, mapped between 4.5 and 7.5 kb from the right terminus. No virus-associated RNA gene was found. Fifteen of 16 unique FAdV-8 ORFs tested were, as determined by RT-PCR, transcribed early. (+info)
The complete DNA sequence and genome organization of the avian adenovirus, hemorrhagic enteritis virus.
(56/57)Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) belongs to the Adenoviridae family, a subgroup of adenoviruses (Ads) that infect avian species. In this article, the complete DNA sequence and the genome organization of the virus are described. The full-length of the genome was found to be 26,263 bp, shorter than the DNA of any other Ad described so far. The G + C content of the genome is 34.93%. There are short terminal repeats (39 bp), as described for other Ads. Genes were identified by comparison of the DNA and predicted amino acid sequences with published sequences of other Ads. The organization of the genome in respect to late genes (52K, IIIa, penton base, core protein, hexon, endopeptidase, 100K, pVIII, and fiber), early region 2 genes (polymerase, terminal protein, and DNA binding protein), and intermediate gene IVa2 was found to be similar to that of other human and avian Ad genomes. No sequences similar to E1 and E4 regions were found. Very low similarity to ovine E3 region was found. Open reading frames were identified with no similarity to any published Ad sequence. (+info)