Genome sequence of a waterfowl aviadenovirus, goose adenovirus 4. (33/57)


Oral inoculation of chickens with a candidate fowl adenovirus 9 vector. (34/57)


Characterization of group II avian adenoviruses with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. (35/57)

The interaction between a panel of ten monoclonal antibodies and hemorrhagic enteritis virus, a group II avian adenovirus, was determined. The monoclonal antibodies reacted with all nine isolates of group II avian adenoviruses, but not with any of five types of group I avian adenoviruses. All ten monoclonal antibodies recognized antigenic determinants on the hexon protein of hemorrhagic enteritis virus when analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. They reacted only with the native hexon protein and not with protein denatured by sodium dodecyl sulfate or guanidine-HCl/urea treatment combined with reduction and carboxymethylation. Based on the results of competitive binding assays, the panel of monoclonal antibodies could be subdivided into two groups, which recognized different antigenic domains of the hemorrhagic enteritis virus hexon protein. The monoclonal antibodies in group 1 neutralized hemorrhagic enteritis virus infectivity while the monoclonal antibodies of group 2 did not. Group 1 consisted of eight monoclonal antibodies which could be further subdivided into subgroups 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D. The subdivision of the monoclonal antibodies was based on the degree of blocking in the competitive binding assays and differences in their ability to induce enhancement. In general, the monoclonal antibodies had a higher avidity for the virulent isolate of hemorrhagic enteritis virus than for the avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus isolate.  (+info)

Effect of adrenal blocking chemicals on viral and respiratory infections of chickens. (36/57)

In a series of experiments chickens were treated with chemicals which block the production of corticosterone by the adrenal cortex prior to being challenged with respiratory disease (and other) agents in order to determine if the course of the diseases could be altered. Some chickens received a single intramuscular injection (14 mg/kg) of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis/p-chlorophenyl/ethane (ABC) dissolved in corn oil (20 mg/mL) at least 12 h before challenge. Other chickens received feed containing 500 mg/kg of metyrapone for at least 12 h before and during the challenge infection. Treated chickens were more resistant than the untreated controls to Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, combined M. gallisepticum-Newcastle disease virus infection, and avian adenovirus group II infection. The feeding of erythromycin (1 g/kg of feed), one day before and during the challenge, reduced the severity of M. gallisepticum infection. The effects of feeding both metyrapone and erythromycin resulted in a further increase in resistance. Chickens which had been treated with ABC had less severe lesions and greater postchallenge weight gain than the controls in response to a secondary Escherichia coli infection.  (+info)

Viral agents associated with outbreaks of diarrhea in turkey flocks in Quebec. (37/57)

The relative importance of various enteric viruses associated with diarrhea of turkey poults was investigated by an evaluation of specimens received since 1982. Specimens originated from one to eight week old turkey poults, with mild to severe diarrhea, from 114 flocks in 42 commercial operations located in southern Quebec. The acute phase of enteritis occurred usually in poults between two and four weeks of age. Clarified intestinal contents were examined by direct electron microscopy and enzyme immunoassays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed with antisera to bovine rotavirus group antigen, avian reovirus types 1 to 5, and the prototype strain of the turkey enteric coronavirus. The presence of viruses could be demonstrated by electron microscopy in 55.3% of the specimens, and at least five different viruses were incriminated either alone or in combination. The coronavirus was by far the most common enteric virus with a prevalence of 47.5%. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, rotavirus, reovirus and turkey coronavirus were detected in 14.5%, 18.1% and 61.4% of the specimens, respectively. By electron microscopy, 56.6% of these cases were positive for at least one virus.  (+info)

VA RNAs from avian and human adenoviruses: dramatic differences in length, sequence, and gene location. (38/57)

Human adenoviruses encode low-molecular-weight RNAs, so-called VA RNAs, which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. These RNAs are required for an efficient translation of viral mRNAs late after infection. The genes for the VA RNAs in the genome of CELO virus were mapped and characterized. The results showed a number of surprising differences between CELO virus and human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2). Thus, the CELO virus genome encoded only one VA RNA species, in contrast to human Ad2, which encoded two distinct species. The VA RNA from CELO virus was much shorter than the Ad2 VA RNAs (90 nucleotides compared with 160 nucleotides), and there existed no detectable primary sequence homology between them. The predicted secondary structure of CELO virus VA RNA was, however, similar to that of the Ad2 VA RNAs, implying that the folding rather than the primary sequence was the important feature for biological activity. CELO VA RNA also stimulated translation in a transient expression assay, as did the Ad2 counterparts, albeit with a much lower efficiency. The location of the gene for CELO VA RNA also differed from all previously characterized serotypes, suggesting that the genome organization of avian and human adenoviruses are different. Finally, termination of CELO VA RNA transcription occurred in a TTATT sequence which is unique as a stop signal for RNA polymerase III transcription.  (+info)

Preferential clustering of viral DNA sequences at or near the site of chromosomal rearrangement in fowl adenovirus type 1 DNA-transformed cell lines. (39/57)

All six transformants obtained by inoculating fowl adenovirus type 1 (CELO virus) DNA or its fragments into a rat cell line of normal karyotype had more than 50 copy-equivalents of viral DNA sequences. Each of the transformants had almost all if not all of these viral DNA sequences clustered on a marker chromosome(s). Although the marker chromosome(s) differed from one cell line to another, viral DNA sequences preferentially clustered in or near the achromatic (or light-stained) region of the G-banded marker chromosomes where chromosomal rearrangement or translocation occurred. These results indicate that no particular chromosome is required to act as the integration site of viral DNA for the transformation of cells, but chromosomal rearrangement at or near the cluster of viral DNA sequences might contribute to the transformation.  (+info)

The structural proteins of chick embryo lethal orphan virus (fowl adenovirus type 1). (40/57)

Chick embryo lethal orphan (CELO) virus (fowl adenovirus type 1) contains at least 14 structural proteins with polypeptide molecular weights ranging from 100K to about 6K. A nomenclature of the CELO virion polypeptides is presented and the molar proportion of each polypeptide has been estimated. The CELO virus pentons were specifically released from the virion by dialysis against borate-based calcium-magnesium saline. The penton base (polypeptide III, mol. wt. 92K) and two fibres were separated, characterized and their polypeptides were correlated with their morphological positions in the virion. Peptide mapping suggested that the long fibre (polypeptide IV, mol. wt. 65K), and the short fibre (polypeptide VII, mol. wt. 44.5K) were not related in their primary sequences and are therefore probably encoded by separate genes. The time course of synthesis of the CELO virion polypeptides indicated that, like their mammalian adenovirus counterparts, they are synthesized late (after viral DNA replication).  (+info)