Identification of domain required for catalytic activity of auxilin in supporting clathrin uncoating by Hsc70.
During clathrin-mediated endocytosis Hsc70, supported by the J-domain protein auxilin, uncoats clathrin-coated vesicles. Auxilin contains both a clathrin-binding domain and a J-domain that binds Hsc70, and it has been suggested that these two domains are both necessary and sufficient for auxilin activity. To test this hypothesis, we created a chimeric protein consisting of the J-domain of auxilin linked to the clathrin-binding domain of the assembly protein AP180. This chimera supported uncoating, but unlike auxilin it acted stoichiometrically rather than catalytically because, like Hsc70, it remained associated with the uncoated clathrin. This observation supports our proposal that Hsc70 chaperones uncoated clathrin by inducing formation of a stable Hsc70-clathrin-AP complex. It also shows that Hsc70 acts by dissociating individual clathrin triskelions rather than cooperatively destabilizing clathrin-coated vesicles. Because the chimera lacks the C-terminal subdomain of the auxilin clathrin-binding domain, it seemed possible that this subdomain is required for auxilin to act catalytically, and indeed its deletion caused auxilin to act stoichiometrically. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal subdomain weakened auxilin-clathrin binding and prevented auxilin from polymerizing clathrin. Therefore the C-terminal subdomain of the clathrin-binding domain of auxilin is required for auxilin to act catalytically, whereas the N-terminal subdomain strengthens auxilin-clathrin binding. (+info)
Molecular and functional characterization of clathrin- and AP-2-binding determinants within a disordered domain of auxilin.
Uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles requires the J-domain protein auxilin for targeting hsc70 to the clathrin coats and for stimulating the hsc70 ATPase activity. This results in the release of hsc70-complexed clathrin triskelia and concomitant dissociation of the coat. To understand the complex role of auxilin in uncoating and clathrin assembly in more detail, we analyzed the molecular organization of its clathrin-binding domain (amino acids 547-813). CD spectroscopy of auxilin fragments revealed that the clathrin-binding domain is almost completely disordered in solution. By systematic mapping using synthetic peptides and by site-directed mutagenesis, we identified short peptide sequences involved in clathrin heavy chain and AP-2 binding and evaluated their significance for the function of auxilin. Some of the binding determinants, including those containing sequences 674DPF and 636WDW, showed dual specificity for both clathrin and AP-2. In contrast, the two DLL motifs within the clathrin-binding domain were exclusively involved in clathrin binding. Surprisingly, they interacted not only with the N-terminal domain of the heavy chain, but also with the distal domain. Moreover, both DLL peptides proved to be essential for clathrin assembly and uncoating. In addition, we found that the motif 726NWQ is required for efficient clathrin assembly activity. Auxilin shares a number of protein-protein interaction motifs with other endocytic proteins, including AP180. We demonstrate that AP180 and auxilin compete for binding to the alpha-ear domain of AP-2. Like AP180, auxilin also directly interacts with the ear domain of beta-adaptin. On the basis of our data, we propose a refined model for the uncoating mechanism of clathrin-coated vesicles. (+info)
Auxilin-dynamin interactions link the uncoating ATPase chaperone machinery with vesicle formation.
The large GTPase dynamin is required for budding of clathrin-coated vesicles from the plasma membrane, after which the clathrin coat is removed by the chaperone Hsc70 and its cochaperone auxilin. Recent evidence suggests that the GTP-bound form of dynamin may recruit factors that execute the fission reaction. Here, we show that dynamin:GTP binds to Hsc70 and auxilin. We mapped two domains within auxilin that interact with dynamin, and these domains inhibit endocytosis when overexpressed in HeLa cells or when added in a permeable cell assay. The inhibition is not due to impairment of clathrin uncoating or to altered clathrin distribution in cells. Thus, in addition to its requirement for clathrin uncoating, our results show that auxilin also acts during the early steps of clathrin-coated vesicle formation. The data suggest that dynamin regulates the action of molecular chaperones in vesicle budding during endocytosis. (+info)
Experimentally biased model structure of the Hsc70/auxilin complex: substrate transfer and interdomain structural change.
A model structure of the Hsc70/auxilin complex has been constructed to gain insight into interprotein substrate transfer and ATP hydrolysis induced conformational changes in the multidomain Hsc70 structure. The Hsc70/auxilin system, which is a member of the Hsp70/Hsp40 chaperone system family, uncoats clathrin-coated vesicles in an ATP hydrolysis-driven process. Incorporating previous results from NMR and mutant binding studies, the auxilin J-domain was docked into the Hsc70 ATPase domain lower cleft using rigid backbone/flexible side chain molecular dynamics, and the Hsc70 substrate binding domain was docked by a similar procedure. For comparison, J-domain and substrate binding domain docking sites were obtained by the rigid-body docking programs DOT and ZDOCK, filtered and ranked by the program ClusPro, and relaxed using the same rigid backbone/flexible side chain dynamics. The substrate binding domain sites were assessed in terms of conserved surface complementarity and feasibility in the context of substrate transfer, both for auxilin and another Hsp40 protein, Hsc20. This assessment favors placement of the substrate binding domain near D152 on the ATPase domain surface adjacent to the J-domain invariant HPD segment, with the Hsc70 interdomain linker in the lower cleft. Examining Hsc70 interdomain energetics, we propose that long-range electrostatic interactions, perhaps due to a difference in the pKa values of bound ATP and ADP, could play a major role in the structural change induced by ATP hydrolysis. Interdomain electrostatic interactions also appear to play a role in stimulation of ATPase activity due to J-domain binding and substrate binding by Hsc70. (+info)
Visualization of the binding of Hsc70 ATPase to clathrin baskets: implications for an uncoating mechanism.
Clathrin assembly into coated pits and vesicles is promoted by accessory proteins such as auxilin and AP180, and disassembly is effected by the Hsc70 ATPase. These interactions may be mimicked in vitro by the assembly and disassembly of clathrin "baskets." The chimera C58J is a minimal construct capable of supporting both reactions; it consists of the C58 moiety of AP180, which facilitates clathrin assembly, fused with the J domain of auxilin, which recruits Hsc70 to baskets. We studied the process of disassembly by using cryo-electron microscopy to identify the initial binding site of Hsc70 on clathrin-C58J baskets at pH 6, under which conditions disassembly does not proceed further. Hsc70 interactions involve two sites: (i) its major interaction is with the sides of spars of the clathrin lattice, close to the triskelion hubs and (ii) there is another interaction at a site at the N-terminal hooks of the clathrin heavy chains, presumably via the J domain of C58J. We propose that individual triskelions may be extricated from the clathrin lattice by the concerted action of up to six Hsc70 molecules, which intercalate between clathrin leg segments, prying them apart. Three Hsc70s remain bound to the dissociated triskelion, close to its trimerization hub. (+info)
An auxilin-like J-domain protein, JAC1, regulates phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis.
The ambient-light conditions mediate chloroplast relocation in plant cells. Under the low-light conditions, chloroplasts accumulate in the light (accumulation response), while under the high-light conditions, they avoid the light (avoidance response). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the accumulation response is mediated by two blue-light receptors, termed phototropins (phot1 and phot2) that act redundantly, and the avoidance response is mediated by phot2 alone. A mutant, J-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1 (jac1), lacks the accumulation response under weak blue light but shows a normal avoidance response under strong blue light. In dark-adapted wild-type cells, chloroplasts accumulate on the bottom of cells. Both the jac1 and phot2 mutants are defective in this chloroplast movement in darkness. Positional cloning of JAC1 reveals that this gene encodes a J-domain protein, resembling clathrin-uncoating factor auxilin at its C terminus. The amounts of JAC1 transcripts and JAC1 proteins are not regulated by light and by phototropins. A green fluorescent protein-JAC1 fusion protein showed a similar localization pattern to green fluorescent protein alone in a transient expression assay using Arabidopsis mesophyll cells and onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, suggesting that the JAC1 protein may be a soluble cytosolic protein. Together, these results suggest that JAC1 is an essential component of phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement. (+info)
Depletion of GAK/auxilin 2 inhibits receptor-mediated endocytosis and recruitment of both clathrin and clathrin adaptors.
Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK/auxilin 2), the ubiquitous form of the neuronal-specific protein auxilin 1, is an essential cofactor for the Hsc70-dependent uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles. We have now investigated the effect of knocking down GAK in HeLa cells by vector-based small hairpin RNA. Functionally, depletion of GAK caused a marked decrease in internalization of both transferrin and epidermal growth factor and altered mannose 6-phosphate receptor trafficking, but had little effect on the recycling of transferrin receptor back to the plasma membrane. Structurally, depletion of GAK caused a marked reduction in perinuclear clathrin associated with the trans-Golgi network and in the number of clathrin-coated pits on the plasma membrane, and reduced clathrin exchange on the few clathrin-coated pits that remained. Surprisingly, while clathrin depletion does not prevent adaptors from assembling on the membrane, depletion of GAK caused a dramatic reduction in AP2 and epsin on the plasma membrane and AP1 and GGA at the trans-Golgi network. A similar effect was caused by expression of a dominant negative Hsp70 mutant. These results suggest that GAK, in conjunction with Hsc70, not only uncoats clathrin-coated vesicles and induces clathrin exchange on clathrin-coated pits, but also mediates binding of clathrin and adaptors to the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. (+info)
Structural basis of interdomain communication in the Hsc70 chaperone.
Hsp70 family proteins are highly conserved chaperones involved in protein folding, degradation, targeting and translocation, and protein complex remodeling. They are comprised of an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and a C-terminal protein substrate binding domain (SBD). ATP binding to the NBD alters SBD conformation and substrate binding kinetics, but an understanding of the mechanism of interdomain communication has been hampered by the lack of a crystal structure of an intact chaperone. We report here the 2.6 angstroms structure of a functionally intact bovine Hsc70 (bHsc70) and a mutational analysis of the observed interdomain interface and the immediately adjacent interdomain linker. This analysis identifies interdomain interactions critical for chaperone function and supports an allosteric mechanism in which the interdomain linker invades and disrupts the interdomain interface when ATP binds. (+info)