Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis.
Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program. (+info)
Wasting of the small hand muscles in upper and mid-cervical cord lesions.
Four patients are described with destructive rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine and neurogenic wasting of forearm and hand muscles. The pathological connection is not immediately obvious, but a relationship between these two observations is described here with clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and necropsy findings. Compression of the anterior spinal artery at upper and mid-cervical levels is demonstrated to be the likely cause of changes lower in the spinal cord. These are shown to be due to the resulting ischaemia of the anterior part of the lower cervical spinal cord, with degeneration of the neurones innervating the forearm and hand muscles. These findings favour external compression of the anterior spinal artery leading to ischaemia in a watershed area as the likeliest explanation for this otherwise inappropriate and bizarre phenomenon. (+info)
Functional integrity of mitochondrial genomes in human platelets and autopsied brain tissues from elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.
To determine whether pathogenic mutations in mtDNA are involved in phenotypic expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the transfer of mtDNA from elderly patients with AD into mtDNA-less (rho0) HeLa cells was carried out by fusion of platelets or synaptosomal fractions of autopsied brain tissues with rho0 HeLa cells. The results showed that mtDNA in postmortem brain tissue survives for a long time without degradation and could be rescued in rho0 HeLa cells. Next, the cybrid clones repopulated with exogenously imported mtDNA from patients with AD were used for examination of respiratory enzyme activity and transfer of mtDNA with the pathogenic mutations that induce mitochondrial dysfunction. The presence of the mutated mtDNA was restricted to brain tissues and their cybrid clones that formed with synaptosomes as mtDNA donors, whereas no cybrid clones that isolated with platelets as mtDNA donors had detectable mutated mtDNA. However, biochemical analyses showed that all cybrid clones with mtDNA imported from platelets or brain tissues of patients with AD restored mitochondrial respiration activity to almost the same levels as those of cybrid clones with mtDNA from age-matched normal controls, suggesting functional integrity of mtDNA in both platelets and brain tissues of elderly patients with AD. These observations warrant the reassessment of the conventional concept that the accumulation of pathogenic mutations in mtDNA throughout the aging process is responsible for the decrease of mitochondrial respiration capacity with age and with the development of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. (+info)
beta-amyloid load is not influenced by the severity of cardiovascular disease in aged and demented patients.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was conducted to analyze the association between reported risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, and cardiovascular disease and neuropathological changes essential for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Our data are based on clinical and postmortem evaluations of a cohort of nondemented (n=118) and demented (n=107) individuals. A cardiovascular index was calculated at autopsy to estimate the extent of cardiovascular disease. Neuropathological lesions such as senile/neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, beta-amyloid load, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and the load of paired helical filaments were determined. RESULTS: The aforementioned neuropathological lesions did not show any positive significant correlation with cardiovascular index. In contrast, the extent of Alzheimer's lesions was significantly higher in those nondemented and demented patients carrying the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele than in those without this allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, but not cardiovascular disease, indeed influences the extent of Alzheimer's lesions seen in the brain tissue of demented patients as well as asymptomatic controls. (+info)
Opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).
P. carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), born and maintained in a laboratory breeding colony, was examined by histopathologic examination postmortem. P. carinii cysts were detected in 6 of 10 red-bellied tamarins examined, by using Grocott's, toluidine blue O and immunostaining with avidin-biotin complex using antisera for rat-, simian-, and human-P. carinii. The results obtained from the present studies imply that P. carinii may be an important pathogen in this species. (+info)
Comparison of prenatal ultrasound and postmortem findings in fetuses and infants with congenital heart defects.
OBJECTIVE: Detection of congenital heart defects by prenatal ultrasound examination has been one of the great challenges since the investigation for fetal anomalies became part of the routine fetal examination. This prospective study was designed to evaluate the concordance of prenatal ultrasound findings with autopsy examination in a population consisting of both referred women and non-selected pregnant women. DESIGN: Criteria for inclusion were an ultrasound examination at the National Center for Fetal Medicine and an autopsy performed during the years 1985-94. Results from the ultrasound and autopsy examinations were systematized into categories depending on the degree of concordance. RESULTS: Of 408 infants and fetuses with developmental anomalies, 106 (26%) had congenital heart defects. In 63 (59%) of these 106 cases, the heart defect was the principal reason for the termination of pregnancy or the cause of death. Excluding five cases with a secundum atrial septal defect, there was complete agreement between the ultrasound examination and the autopsy findings in 74 (73%) of 101 cases. In 18 cases, there were minor discrepancies between ultrasound and autopsy findings. The main diagnosis was thus correct in 92 cases (91%). From the first time period (1985-89) to the second (1990-94), the detection rate of all heart defects increased from 48% to 82%. CONCLUSION: This study confirms a good correlation between ultrasound and autopsy diagnoses in fetuses and infants with congenital heart defects. A significant improvement in the detection of heart defects occurred from the first time period to the second and was probably due to increased experience and technical advances. (+info)
Thromboatheromatous complications of umbilical arterial catheterization in the newborn period. Clinicopathological study.
Severe catheter-related thromboatheromatous lesions were found at necropsy in 33 of 56 infants who had umbilical arterial catheters passed during life. In infants dying within 8 days of insertion of the catheter, varying degrees of thrombosis of the aorta and its major branches were seen. With increasing thrombosis and aging of the thrombus, fatty deposits were seen first within the thrombus, and then in the intima and media. In addition there was evidence of proliferation of medial smooth muscle cells and of disruption of the medial architecture below the thrombus, characterized by the presence of abundant mucopolysaccharide. In infants who survived longer, varying degrees of organization of the thrombus could be traced, leading eventually to raised fibrous plaques with lipid and occasionally calcification. The lesions in the older infants were similar in many respects to experimental thromboatheromatous lesions produced in rabbits, and to some lesions of artheroma occurring spontaneously in humans. A wide variety of embolic phenomena were found, with features suggesting asynchrony of embolic episodes. The presence of thrombotic lesions could not be related to birthweight, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, age at catheterization, duration of catheterization, underlying disease process, age at death or the presence of hypothermia, acidosis, or anomalies in coagulation tests. There is a need for less hazardous methods of monitoring arterial oxygen tension. (+info)
Short left coronary artery trunk as a risk factor in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Pathological study.
The relation between the length of the main left coronary artery and the degree of atherosclerosis in its branches was studied by postmortem examination in 204 subjects aged 20 to 90 years. The findings suggest that in cases with a short main left coronary artery the atherosclerotic lesions in the anterior descending and circumflex branches appear earlier, progress faster at higher levels of severity, and lead more frequently to myocardial infarction, than in cases with a long left coronary artery trunk. In cases over the age of 50 years, where disease is expected to have developed, it was shown that the degree of atherosclerosis in the left anterior descending and circumflex branches was inversely related to the length of the main left coronary artery. The correlation coefficients were -0-527 and -0-428, respectively, and in either case a test for zero correlations was significant (P less than 0-001). The possible changes in the haemodynamic and mechanical conditions associated with the variations of the anatomical pattern of the coronary arteries and their influence in the development of atherosclerosis are discussed. It is suggested that the length of the main left coronary artery is a congenital anatomical and possibly hereditary factor influencing the rate of development of atherosclerosis in the branches of the main left coronary artery. (+info)