LB-AUT7, a novel symbiosis-regulated gene from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor, is functionally related to vesicular transport and autophagocytosis.
We have identified LB-AUT7, a gene differentially expressed 6 h after ectomycorrhizal interaction between Laccaria bicolor and Pinus resinosa. LB-Aut7p can functionally complement its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, which is involved in the attachment of autophagosomes to microtubules. Our findings suggest the induction of an autophagocytosis-like vesicular transport process during ectomycorrhizal interaction. (+info)
Apg7p/Cvt2p is required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting, macroautophagy, and peroxisome degradation pathways.
Proper functioning of organelles necessitates efficient protein targeting to the appropriate subcellular locations. For example, degradation in the fungal vacuole relies on an array of targeting mechanisms for both resident hydrolases and their substrates. The particular processes that are used vary depending on the available nutrients. Under starvation conditions, macroautophagy is the primary method by which bulk cytosol is sequestered into autophagic vesicles (autophagosomes) destined for this organelle. Molecular genetic, morphological, and biochemical evidence indicates that macroautophagy shares much of the same cellular machinery as a biosynthetic pathway for the delivery of the vacuolar hydrolase, aminopeptidase I, via the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway. The machinery required in both pathways includes a novel protein modification system involving the conjugation of two autophagy proteins, Apg12p and Apg5p. The conjugation reaction was demonstrated to be dependent on Apg7p, which shares homology with the E1 family of ubiquitin-activating enzymes. In this study, we demonstrate that Apg7p functions at the sequestration step in the formation of Cvt vesicles and autophagosomes. The subcellular localization of Apg7p fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicates that a subpopulation of Apg7pGFP becomes membrane associated in an Apg12p-dependent manner. Subcellular fractionation experiments also indicate that a portion of the Apg7p pool is pelletable under starvation conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the Pichia pastoris homologue Gsa7p that is required for peroxisome degradation is functionally similar to Apg7p, indicating that this novel conjugation system may represent a general nonclassical targeting mechanism that is conserved across species. (+info)
Glucose-induced autophagy of peroxisomes in Pichia pastoris requires a unique E1-like protein.
Cytosolic and peroxisomal enzymes necessary for methanol assimilation are synthesized when Pichia pastoris is grown in methanol. Upon adaptation from methanol to a glucose environment, these enzymes are rapidly and selectively sequestered and degraded within the yeast vacuole. Sequestration begins when the vacuole changes shape and surrounds the peroxisomes. The opposing membranes then fuse, engulfing the peroxisome. In this study, we have characterized a mutant cell line (glucose-induced selective autophagy), gsa7, which is defective in glucose-induced selective autophagy of peroxisomes, and have identified the GSA7 gene. Upon glucose adaptation, gsa7 cells were unable to degrade peroxisomal alcohol oxidase. We observed that the peroxisomes were surrounded by the vacuole, but complete uptake into the vacuole did not occur. Therefore, we propose that GSA7 is not required for initiation of autophagy but is required for bringing the opposing vacuolar membranes together for homotypic fusion, thereby completing peroxisome sequestration. By sequencing the genomic DNA fragment that complemented the gsa7 phenotype, we have found that GSA7 encodes a protein of 71 kDa (Gsa7p) with limited sequence homology to a family of ubiquitin-activating enzymes, E1. The knockout mutant gsa7Delta had an identical phenotype to gsa7, and both mutants were rescued by an epitope-tagged Gsa7p (Gsa7-hemagglutinin [HA]). In addition, a GSA7 homolog, APG7, a protein required for autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was capable of rescuing gsa7. We have sequenced the human homolog of GSA7 and have shown many regions of identity between the yeast and human proteins. Two of these regions align to the putative ATP-binding domain and catalytic site of the family of ubiquitin activating enzymes, E1 (UBA1, UBA2, and UBA3). When either of these sites was mutated, the resulting mutants [Gsa7(DeltaATP)-HA and Gsa7(C518S)-HA] were unable to rescue gsa7 cells. We provide evidence to suggest that Gsa7-HA formed a thio-ester linkage with a 25-30 kDa protein. This conjugate was not observed in cells expressing Gsa7(DeltaATP)-HA or in cells expressing Gsa7(C518S)-HA. Our results suggest that this unique E1-like enzyme is required for homotypic membrane fusion, a late event in the sequestration of peroxisomes by the vacuole. (+info)
Apg7p/Cvt2p: A novel protein-activating enzyme essential for autophagy.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugating system is essential for autophagy. Apg7p is required for the conjugation reaction, because Apg12p is unable to form a conjugate with Apg5p in the apg7/cvt2 mutant. Apg7p shows a significant similarity to a ubiquitin-activating enzyme, Uba1p. In this article, we investigated the function of Apg7p as an Apg12p-activating enzyme. Hemagglutinin-tagged Apg12p was coimmunoprecipitated with c-myc-tagged Apg7p. A two-hybrid experiment confirmed the interaction. The coimmunoprecipitation was sensitive to a thiol-reducing reagent. Furthermore, a thioester conjugate of Apg7p was detected in a lysate of cells overexpressing both Apg7p and Apg12p. These results indicated that Apg12p interacts with Apg7p via a thioester bond. Mutational analyses of Apg7p suggested that Cys507 of Apg7p is an active site cysteine and that both the ATP-binding domain and the cysteine residue are essential for the conjugation of Apg7p with Apg12p to form the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate. Cells expressing mutant Apg7ps, Apg7pG333A, or Apg7pC507A showed defects in autophagy and cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting of aminopeptidase I. These results indicated that Apg7p functions as a novel protein-activating enzyme necessary for Apg12p-Apg5p conjugation. (+info)
A 60 kDa plasma membrane protein changes its localization to autophagosome and autolysosome membranes during induction of autophagy in rat hepatoma cell line, H-4-II-E cells.
We previously reported the preparation and characterization of an antibody against membrane fraction of autolysosomes from rat liver (J. Histochem. Cytochem. 38, 1571-1581, 1990). Immunoblot analyses of total membrane fraction of a rat hepatoma cell line, H-4-II-E cells by this antibody suggested that H-4-II-E cells expressed several autolysosomal proteins, including a protein with apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa. It was suggested that this 60 kDa protein was a peripheral membrane protein, because it was eluted from the membrane by sodium carbonate treatment. We prepared an antibody against this 60 kDa protein by affinity purification method, and examined its behavior during induction of autophagy. Autophagy was induced by transferring the cells from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) containing 12% fetal calf serum into Hanks' balance salt solution. In DMEM, the 60 kDa protein showed diffused immunofluorescence pattern, and immunoelectron microscopy suggested that this protein was located on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. After inducing autophagy, the immunofluorescence configuration of the 60 kDa protein changed from the diffused pattern to a granulous one. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the 60 kDa protein was localized on the luminal side of the limiting membrane of autolysosomes and endosomes. In the presence of bafilomycin A1 which prevents fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes, the 60 kDa protein was localized on the limiting membrane of the autophagosomes and endosomes. These results suggest that the 60 kDa protein is transported from the plasma membrane to the autophagosome membrane through the endosomes. (+info)
A human intracellular apyrase-like protein, LALP70, localizes to lysosomal/autophagic vacuoles.
Using antibodies against autophagic vacuole membrane proteins we identified a human cDNA with an open reading frame of 1848 bp, encoding a protein of 70 kDa, which we named lysosomal apyrase-like protein of 70 kDa (LALP70). Sequence analysis revealed that LALP70 belongs to the apyrase or GDA1/CD39 family and is almost identical to a human uridine diphosphatase, with the exception of nine extra amino acids in LALP70. Members of this family were originally described as ectoenzymes, with some intracellular exceptions. Transfected LALP70 fused to the green fluorescent protein localized in the cytoplasm with a punctate pattern in the perinuclear space. These structures colocalized with the autophagic marker monodansylcadaverine and the lysosomal protein lamp1. Hydrophobicity analysis of the encoded protein revealed a transmembrane region at the N and C termini. Most of the sequence is arranged between these transmembrane domains, and contains four apyrase conserved regions. In vitro transcription/translation in the presence of microsomes showed that no signal sequence is cleaved off and that the translation product is protected from trypsin treatment. Our data indicate that LALP70 is a type III lysosomal/autophagic vacuole membrane protein with the apyrase conserved regions facing the luminal space of the vacuoles. (+info)
Apg16p is required for the function of the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate in the yeast autophagy pathway.
Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system that is ubiquitous for eukaryotic cells. In this process, cytoplasmic components are enclosed in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes/vacuoles. We recently found that a protein conjugation system, in which Apg12p is covalently attached to Apg5p, is indispensable for autophagy in yeast. Here, we describe a novel coiled-coil protein, Apg16p, essential for autophagy. Apg16p interacts with Apg12p-conjugated Apg5p and less preferentially with unconjugated Apg5p. Moreover, the coiled-coil domain of Apg16p mediates self-multimerization that leads to cross-linking of Apg5p molecules and formation of a stable protein complex. Apg16p is not essential for the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugation reaction. These results suggest that the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate requires Apg16p to accomplish its role in the autophagy pathway, and Apg16p is a key molecule as a linker to form the Apg12p-Apg5p-Apg16p multimer. (+info)
Clathrin functions in the absence of heterotetrameric adaptors and AP180-related proteins in yeast.
The major coat proteins of clathrin-coated vesicles are the clathrin triskelion and heterotetrameric associated protein (AP) complexes. The APs are thought to be involved in cargo capture and recruitment of clathrin to the membrane during endocytosis and sorting in the trans-Golgi network/endosomal system. AP180 is an abundant coat protein in brain clathrin-coated vesicles, and it has potent clathrin assembly activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are 13 genes encoding homologs of heterotetrameric AP subunits and two genes encoding AP180-related proteins. To test the model that clathrin function is dependent on the heterotetrameric APs and/or AP180 homologs, yeast strains containing multiple disruptions in AP subunit genes, as well as in the two YAP180 genes, were constructed. Surprisingly, the AP deletion strains did not display the phenotypes associated with clathrin deficiency, including slowed growth and endocytosis, defective late Golgi protein retention and impaired cytosol to vacuole/autophagy function. Clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from multiple AP deletion mutants were morphologically indistinguishable from those from wild-type cells. These results indicate that clathrin function and recruitment onto membranes are not dependent upon heterotetrameric adaptors or AP180 homologs in yeast. Therefore, alternative mechanisms for clathrin assembly and coated vesicle formation, as well as the role of AP complexes and AP180-related proteins in these processes, must be considered. (+info)