Sympathetic inhibition of ascending and descending interneurones during the peristaltic reflex in the isolated guinea-pig distal colon.
1. We investigated the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation within ascending and descending reflex pathways underlying the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig distal colon. 2. A three-chambered partitioned bath was used to divide a segment of distal colon into stimulation, recording and intermediate regions. The effects of lumbar colonic nerves (LCN) could be localized to the intermediate region by surgical lesions of the mesentery and by application of guanethidine (3 microM) to the stimulation and recording chambers. 3. Brush stroking the mucosa in the anal and oral stimulation chambers elicited a synchronous contraction of the longitudinal muscle (LM) and circular muscle (CM) oral to, and transient relaxation of the LM and CM anal to, the stimulus, respectively. 4. After N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA; 100 microM) in the oral and intermediate chambers, mucosal stimulation in the oral chamber elicited a prolonged descending inhibitory and excitatory complex in both the LM and CM in the anal recording chamber. This was blocked by hexamethonium (300 microM), which did not affect the transient relaxation response recorded in control conditions. 5. Stimulation of the LCN (1200 pulses, 20 Hz), delivered to the intermediate region, abolished the oral contraction and the L-NA-induced anal complex in both the LM and CM, but was without effect on the transient hexamethonium-resistant anal relaxation. These effects of LCN stimulation were reversed by phentolamine (3 microM) or yohimbine (100 nM), but not propranolol (10 microM), when added to the intermediate chamber. 6. LCN stimuli (2-20 Hz, 600 micros pulses) directed to the recording chamber elicited synchronous relaxations in the LM and CM that were unaffected by hexamethonium (300 microM), but were reduced by yohimbine and usually blocked by the further addition of propranolol (10 microM). 7. In conclusion, sympathetic nerve stimulation inhibits orally and anally projecting cholinergic interneurones underlying the peristaltic reflex in the distal colon. In addition, the LM and CM relax synchronously following release of sympathetic neurotransmitter, over a range of stimulus frequencies. (+info)
Changes in peptidergic nerves in the atrioventricular valves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a confocal microscopy study.
Several previous studies have described the distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactive nerve fibres in the atrioventricular valves of humans and various animals. It has been suggested that peptide-containing nerve fibres might have motor or sensory roles in valvular function. Although there is evidence that diabetic changes occur in the sympathetic (preganglionic and postganglionic), parasympathetic (vagal) and peptidergic nerves of rats, the changes of peptide-containing nerve fibres in the atrioventricular valves of the diabetic rat have not been studied. The distribution, relative density and staining intensity of NPY-like and CGRP-like immunoreactive nerve fibres in the mitral and tricuspid valves were studied in whole mount preparations using confocal microscopy with a computer-assisted image analysis system. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were sacrificed at 12 and 24 months. The nerve staining intensity within the tricuspid valve was greater than the mitral valve in both control (P < 0.01) and diabetic (P < 0.001) rats. Nerve density in the anterior leaflet was greater than the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. However, the anterior leaflet of the mitral and tricuspid valves showed a decreased number of nerve fibres, followed by drastic reduction in the staining intensities for both the peptides studied (P < 0.001) in the long-term diabetic rat. The decrease in the number of nerve fibres that follow the mechanical interruption of nerves raises the possibility that cycles of degeneration may occur. It is suggested that these peptide-containing nerve fibres in the atrioventricular valves may be involved in valvular dysfunction in the diabetic state. (+info)
Neuronal pathways for the propagation of herpes simplex virus type 1 from one retina to the other in a murine model.
Herpetic retinitis in humans is characterized by a high frequency of bilateral localization. In order to determine the possible mechanisms leading to bilateral retinitis, we studied the pathways by which herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is propagated from one retina to the other after intravitreal injection in mice. HSV-1 strain SC16 (90 p.f.u.) was injected into the vitreous body of the left eye of BALB/c mice. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Histological sections were studied by immunochemical staining. Primary retinitis in the inoculated eye (beginning 1 day p.i.) was followed by contralateral retinitis (in the uninoculated eye) starting at 3 days p.i. Infected neurons of central visual pathway nuclei (lateral geniculate nuclei, suprachiasmatic nuclei and pretectal areas) were detected at 4 days p.i. Iris and ciliary body infection was minimal early on, but became extensive thereafter and was accompanied by the infection of connected sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The pattern of virus propagation over time suggests that the onset of contralateral retinitis was mediated by local (non-synaptic) transfer in the optic chiasm from infected to uninfected axons of the optic nerves. Later, retinopetal transneuronal propagation of the virus from visual pathways may have contributed to increase the severity of contralateral retinitis. (+info)
Changes in catecholaminergic pathways innervating paraventricular nucleus and pituitary-adrenal axis response during morphine dependence: implication of alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.
We have previously shown an enhanced activity of the pituitary-adrenal response in rats dependent on morphine, which occurs concomitantly with an increase in the activity of catecholaminergic terminals in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study examined the possible role of noradrenergic system in the regulation of opioid withdrawal-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Rats were given morphine by s.c. implantation of morphine pellets for 7 days. On the seventh day, morphine withdrawal was induced by s.c. administration of naloxone (1 mg/kg), rats were sacrificed 30 min later, and changes in noradrenaline (NA) turnover (estimated by the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol/NA ratio) and in dopamine turnover (estimated by the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio) in the PVN (HPLC with electrochemical detection) and in plasma corticosterone levels were determined. We found a parallelism between the behavioral signs of withdrawal, an increased activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic terminals in the PVN, and the hypersecretion of the HPA axis. Pretreatment with alpha(1)- or alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin or yohimbine, respectively, 15 min before naloxone administration significantly prevented the withdrawal-induced corticosterone hypersecretion and attenuated the behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. In addition, biochemical analysis indicated that both prazosin and yohimbine completely abolished the withdrawal-induced increase in NA turnover in the PVN. In contrast, neither prazosin nor yohimbine modified the hyperactivity of dopaminergic terminals in the PVN during withdrawal. Collectively, these data suggest that the secretory activity in the HPA axis after morphine withdrawal results from an increase in noradrenergic activity that is dependent on alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation. Activation of dopaminergic pathways might not contribute to the neuroendocrine response during withdrawal. (+info)
The soma and neurites of primary afferent neurons in the guinea-pig intestine respond differentially to deformation.
1. Intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the small intestine are exposed to distortion of their processes and of their cell bodies. Recordings of mechanosensitivity have previously been made from these neurons using intracellular microelectrodes, but this form of recording has not permitted detection of generator potentials from the processes, or of responses to cell body distortion. 2. We have developed a technique to record from enteric neurons in situ using patch electrodes. The mechanical stability of the patch recordings has allowed recording in cell-attached and whole cell configuration during imposed movement of the neurons. 3. Pressing with a fine probe initiated generator potentials (14 +/- 9 mV) from circumscribed regions of the neuron processes within the same myenteric ganglion, at distances from 100 to 500 microm from the cell body that was patched. Generator potentials persisted when synaptic transmission was blocked with high Mg2+, low Ca2+ solution. 4. Soma distortion, by pressing down with the whole cell recording electrode, inhibited action potential firing. Consistent with this, moderate intra-electrode pressure (10 mbar; 1 kPa) increased the opening probability of large-conductance (BK) potassium channels, recorded in cell-attached mode, but suction was not effective. In outside-out patches, suction, but not pressure, increased channel opening probability. Mechanosensitive BK channels have not been identified on other neurons. 5. The BK channels had conductances of 195 +/- 25 pS. Open probability was increased by depolarization, with a half-maximum activation at a patch potential of 20 mV and a slope factor of 10 mV. Channel activity was blocked by charybdotoxin (20 nM). 6. Stretch that increased membrane area under the electrode by 15 % was sufficient to double open probability. Similar changes in membrane area occur when the intestine changes diameter and wall tension under physiological conditions. Thus, the intestinal intrinsic primary afferent neurons are detectors of neurite distortion and of compression of the soma, these stimuli having opposite effects on neuron excitability. (+info)
Acute sarin exposure causes differential regulation of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system of the rat.
Acute neurotoxic effects of sarin (O:-isopropylmethylphosphonoflouridate) in male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. The animals were treated with intramuscular (im) injections of either 1 x LD(50) (100 microg/kg), and sacrificed at 0. 5, 1, 3, 6, 15, or 20 h after treatment, or with im injections of either 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 x LD(50) and sacrificed 15 h after treatment. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and brain regional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were inhibited (45-55%) by 30 min after the LD(50) dose. BChE in the plasma and AChE in cortex, brainstem, midbrain, and cerebellum remained inhibited for up to 20 h following a single LD(50) treatment. No inhibition in plasma BChE activity was observed 20 h after treatment with doses lower than the LD(50) dose. Midbrain and brainstem seem to be most responsive to sarin treatment at lower doses, as these regions exhibited inhibition (approximately 49% and 10%, respectively) in AChE activity following 0.1 x LD(50) treatment, after 20 h. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was increased in cortex, brainstem, and midbrain 6 h after LD(50) treatment, and the elevated enzyme activity persisted up to 20 h after treatment. Cortex ChAT activity was significantly increased following a 0.1 x LD(50) dose, whereas brainstem and midbrain did not show any effect at lower doses. Treatment with an LD(50) dose caused a biphasic response in cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2-mAChR) ligand binding, using [(3)H]cytisine and [(3)H]AFDX-384 as ligands for nAChR and mAChR, respectively. Decreases at 1 and 3 h and consistent increases at 6, 15, and 20 h in nAChR and m2-mAChR were observed following a single LD(50) dose. The increase in nAChR ligand binding densities was much more pronounced than in mAChR. These results suggest that a single exposure of sarin, ranging from 0.1 to 1 x LD(50), modulates the cholinergic pathways differently and thereby causes dysregulation in excitatory neurotransmission. (+info)
Genes, lineages and the neural crest: a speculative review.
Sensory and sympathetic neurons are generated from the trunk neural crest. The prevailing view has been that these two classes of neurons are derived from a common neural crest-derived progenitor that chooses between neuronal fates only after migrating to sites of peripheral ganglion formation. Here I reconsider this view in the light of new molecular and genetic data on the differentiation of sensory and autonomic neurons. These data raise several paradoxes when taken in the context of classical studies of the timing and spatial patterning of sensory and autonomic ganglion formation. These paradoxes can be most easily resolved by assuming that the restriction of neural crest cells to either sensory or autonomic lineages occurs at a very early stage, either before and/or shortly after they exit the neural tube. (+info)
Dominant anti-vagal effect of pentobarbital on cardiac responses to intracardiac autonomic nerve stimulation in the dog.
The isolated canine atrium was perfused by heparinized blood of the donor dog. An adequate dose of pentobarbital that induced a potent hypotension in the donor did not produce any significant change in the atrial rate and developed tension in the isolated atrium perfused with donor's blood. Pentobarbital in doses that modified neither cardiac responses to intracardiac adrenergic nerve stimulation nor exogenously given norepinephrine or acetylcholine significantly inhibited intracardiac vagal responses. From these results, it is concluded that a large dose of pentobarbital has a dominant antivagal effect in the heart. (+info)