Johannes Heinrich Schultz and National Socialism.
BACKGROUND: Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884-1970) established the set of techniques known as "autogenic training." From 1936 until 1945 he worked as assistant director of the Goring Institute. His role during National Socialism has been underestimated in our opinion. METHOD: We considered Schultz's academic publications and his "autobiography" from 1964. RESULTS: Schultz publicly advocated compulsory sterilization as well as the "annihilation of life unworthy of life" and developed a diagnostic scheme which distinguished between the neurotic/curable and the hereditary/ incurable. In fact, this classification was then employed to decide between life and death. In order to justify the "New German Psychotherapy" alongside eugenic psychiatry, Schultz carried out degrading and inhuman "treatments" of homosexual prisoners of concentration camps who were in mortal danger. LIMITATIONS: This study was based on written documents. We were not able to interview contemporary witnesses. CONCLUSION: By advocating compulsory sterilization and the "annihilation of life unworthy of life" and by the abuse of homosexuals as research objects Schultz violated fundamental ethical principles of psychiatry. (+info)
Effects of self-hypnosis training and EMG biofeedback relaxation training on chronic pain in persons with spinal-cord injury.
The role of feedback in voluntary control of blood pressure in instructed subjects.
Forty normal male volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions and instructed to raise and lower their systolic blood pressure. Subjects received either beat-to-beat feedback contingent on pressure changes, noncontingent beat-to-beat feedback, noncontingent feedback presented randomly with respect to the occurrence of each heart beat, or instructions alone. The order of increase and decrease trial blocks was counterbalanced across groups. Subjects receiving contingent feedback were monetarily rewarded for appropriate pressure changes. Subjects receiving noncontingent feedback received rewards and feedback equal to the mean received by the contingent group. Subjects in the instructions-only condition were also paid this bonus but were informed of their earnings only at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that in the presence of instructions, feedback, whether contingent or noncontingent, added little to subjects' ability to control pressure during a single session. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. (+info)
Biofeedback, autogenic training, and progressive relaxation in the treatment of Raynaud's disease: a comparative study.
Twenty-one female patients suffering from diagnosed idiopathic Raynaud's Disease were trained to raise digital skin temperature using either autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, or a combination of autogenic training and skin temperature feedback. Patients were instructed in the treatment procedures in three one-hour group sessions spaced one week apart. All patients were instructed to practice what they had learned twice a day at home. Patients kept records of the frequency of vasospastic attacks occurring over a four-week baseline period, and during the first four weeks and the ninth week of training. In addition, patients underwent four laboratory cold stress tests during which they were instructed to maintain digital temperature as the ambient temperature was slowly dropped from 26 degrees to 17 degrees C. Cold stress tests were given during week 1 of baseline and during weeks 1, 3, and 5 of training. No significant differences between the three behavioral treatment procedures were obtained. In addition, the ability of patients to maintain digital temperature during the cold stress challenge showed significant improvement from the first to the last tests. Symptomatic improvement was maintained by all patients nine weeks after the start of training. The implications of these findings for the behavioral treatment of Raynaud's Disease are discussed. (+info)