Doping control in Japan. An automated extraction procedure for the doping test.
Horse racing in Japan consists of two systems, the National (10 racecourses) and the Regional public racing (32 racecourses) having about 2,500 racing meetings in total per year. Urine or saliva samples for dope testing are collected by the officials from thw winner, second and third, and transported to the laboratory in a frozen state. In 1975, 76, 117 samples were analyzed by this laboratory. The laboratory provides the following four methods of analysis, which are variously combined by request. (1) Method for detection of drugs extracted by chloroform from alkalinized sample. (2) Methods for detection of camphor and its derivatives. (3) Method for detection of barbiturates. (4) Method for detection of ethanol. These methods consist of screening, mainly by thin layer chromatography and confirmatory tests using ultra violet spectrophotometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography. In the screening test of doping drugs, alkalinized samples are extracted with chloroform. In order to automate the extraction procedure, the authors contrived a new automatic extractor. They also devised a means of pH adjustment of horse urine by using buffer solution and an efficient mechanism of evaporation of organic solvent. Analytical data obtained by the automatic extractor are presented in this paper. In 1972, we started research work to automate the extraction procedure in method (1) above, and the Automatic Extractor has been in use in routine work since last July. One hundred and twnety samples per hour are extracted automatically by three automatic extractors. The analytical data using this apparatus is presented below. (+info)
Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared.
Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined. (+info)
Improved antibody detection by the use of range expansion and longer filter wavelength in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate Auto-Analyzer system.
Range expansion, achieved by insertion of a variable resistance between the colorimeter and the recorder together with the use of 550 nm colorimeter filters, has resulted in markedly improved sensitivity for antibody detection, and improved sample identification, in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate (LISPS) system. Range expansion also permits a lower concentration of red cells to be used, thus economizing on fully typed cells. Glycerol stored frozen cells were found to be only slightly less sensitive than fresh cells in this system. (+info)
Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.
A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality. (+info)
Automated homogeneous immunoassay for gentamicin on the dimension clinical chemistry system.
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of the concentration of gentamicin in serum and plasma during therapy is widely recommended and practiced in hospitals. Our aim was to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay technology to quantify gentamicin on the Dimension clinical chemistry system. METHODS: Assay performance was assessed on each of the Dimension models in a 15-instrument interlaboratory comparison study. A split-sample comparison (n = 1171) was also performed between the gentamicin methods on the Dimension system and the Abbott TDx analyzer, using multiple reagent and calibrator lots on multiple instruments. RESULTS: The Dimension method was linear to 25.1 micromol/L (12.0 microg/mL) with a detection limit of 0.63 micromol/L (0.3 microg/mL). Calibration was stable for 30 days. The within-run imprecision (CV) was <1.3%, and total imprecision ranged from 1.8% to 3.2% between 4.2 micromol/L (2.0 microg/mL) and 16.7 micromol/L (8.0 microg/mL) gentamicin. Linear regression analysis of the results on the Dimension method (DM) vs the Abbott TDx yielded the following equation: DM = 0.98TDx - 0.42; r = 0.987. Minimal interference was observed from structurally related compounds such as sagamicin, netilmicin, and sisomicin. CONCLUSION: The monoclonal antibody used in this method has similar reactivities toward the individual gentamicin subspecies C1, C1a, and C2, thus providing analytical recovery not significantly dependent on relative subspecies concentrations. (+info)
Evaluation of a new method for the analysis of free catecholamines in plasma using automated sample trace enrichment with dialysis and HPLC.
BACKGROUND: Analysis of urinary free catecholamines was automated recently, but analysis of plasma samples posed special difficulties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new method for the automated analysis of plasma catecholamines. METHODS: The procedure is based on an improved sample handling system that includes dialysis and sample clean-up on a strong cation trace-enrichment cartridge. The catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are then separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and quantified by electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Use of a 740- microL sample is required to give the catecholamine detection limit of 0.05 nmol/L and analytical imprecision (CV) between 1.1% and 9.3%. The assay can be run unattended, although >12 h of analysis time is not recommended without cooling of the autosampler rack. Comparison (n = 68) of the automated cation-exchange clean-up with the well-established manual alumina procedure gave excellent agreement (mean, 3.78 +/- 2.76 and 3.8 +/- 2.89 nmol/L for norepinephrine and 0.99 +/- 1.72 and 1.08 +/- 1.78 nmol/L for epinephrine). Hemodialysis had no clear effect on plasma norepinephrine. Epinephrine concentrations were similar (0.05 < P < 0.1) in chronic renal failure patients (0.24 +/- 0.3 nmol/L; n = 15) and healthy controls (0.5 +/- 0.24 nmol/L; n = 31). Dopamine was not quantified, being usually <0.2 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: The availability of such a fully automated procedure should encourage the more widespread use of plasma catecholamine estimation, e.g., after dialysis, exercise, or trauma/surgery and in the investigation of catecholamine-secreting tumors, particularly in the anuric patient. (+info)
Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of CA27.29 and CA15.3 in primary breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: A new, fully automated method that measures the breast cancer-associated glycoprotein CA27.29 has become commercially available. The aim of the present study was to compare this CA27.29 assay with the assay that measures CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively on preoperative serum samples collected from 275 patients with untreated primary breast cancer (154 node positive and 121 node negative). Eighty-three healthy control subjects were also evaluated. CA27.29 was measured using the fully automated Chiron Diagnostics immunochemiluminescent system (ACS:180 BR). CA15.3 was measured with a manual immunoradiometric method (Centocor CA15.3 RIA). RESULTS: In healthy subjects, CA15.3 was significantly higher than CA27.29 (P <0. 0001). On the other hand, in breast cancer patients CA27.29 was higher than CA15.3 (P = 0.013). The mean value found in the control group plus 2 SD was chosen as the positive/negative cutoff point. The overall positivity rates were 34.9% for CA27.29 and 22.5% for CA15.3. The area under the ROC curve was greater (P <0.001) for CA27. 29 (0.72) than for CA15.3 (0.61). Both markers showed a statistically significant, direct relationship, with pathological stage being higher in node-positive than in node-negative cases and in larger than in smaller tumors. Neither CA27.29 nor CA15.3 showed significant associations with age, menopausal status, or tumor receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: CA27.29 discriminates primary breast cancer from healthy subjects better than CA15.3, especially in patients with limited disease. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this conclusion. (+info)
Interference by tubing material in continuous-flow systems.
An anomalous behavior in the measurement of calcium with the smac multi-channel high-speed analyzer was eliminated by taking the diluted serum directly from the dilution loop of the instrument before it enters the stainless-steel riser. (+info)