(1/5583) Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia.
BACKGROUND: We correlated the electrophysiologic (EP) effects of adenosine with tachycardia mechanisms in patients with supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Adenosine was administered to 229 patients with SVTs during EP study: atrioventricular (AV) reentry (AVRT; n=59), typical atrioventricular node reentry (AVNRT; n=82), atypical AVNRT (n=13), permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT; n=12), atrial tachycardia (AT; n=53), and inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST; n=10). There was no difference in incidence of tachycardia termination at the AV node in AVRT (85%) versus AVNRT (86%) after adenosine, but patients with AVRT showed increases in the ventriculoatrial (VA) intervals (13%) compared with typical AVNRT (0%), P<0.005. Changes in atrial, AV, or VA intervals after adenosine did not predict the mode of termination of long R-P tachycardias. For patients with AT, there was no correlation with location of the atrial focus and adenosine response. AV block after adenosine was only observed in AT patients (27%) or IST (30%). Patients with IST showed atrial cycle length increases after adenosine (P<0.05) with little change in activation sequence. The incidence of atrial fibrillation after adenosine was higher for those with AVRT (15%) compared with typical AVNRT (0%) P<0.001, or atypical AVNRT (0%) but similar to those with AT (11%) and PJRT (17%). CONCLUSIONS: The EP response to adenosine proved of limited value to identify the location of AT or SVT mechanisms. Features favoring AT were the presence of AV block or marked shortening of atrial cycle length before tachycardia suppression. Atrial fibrillation was more common after adenosine in patients with AVRT, PJRT, or AT. Patients with IST showed increases in cycle length with little change in atrial activation sequence after adenosine. (+info)
(2/5583) Regional differences in the recovery course of tachycardia-induced changes of atrial electrophysiological properties.
BACKGROUND: Regional differences in recovery of tachycardia-induced changes of atrial electrophysiological properties have not been well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the control group (5 dogs), atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) were assessed before and every 4 hours for 48 hours after complete atrioventricular junction (AVJ) ablation with 8-week VVI pacing. In experimental group 1 (15 dogs), AERP and inducibility of AF were assessed before and after complete AVJ ablation with 8-week rapid right atrial (RA) pacing (780 bpm) and VVI pacing. In experimental group 2 (7 dogs), AERP and inducibility of AF were assessed before and after 8-week rapid left atrial (LA) pacing and VVI pacing. AERP and inducibility and duration of AF were obtained from 7 epicardial sites. In the control group, atrial electrophysiological properties obtained immediately and during 48-hour measurements after pacing did not show any change. In the 2 experimental groups, recovery of atrial electrophysiological properties included a progressive recovery of AERP shortening, recovery of AERP maladaptation, and decrease of duration and episodes of reinduced AF. However, recovery of shortening and maladaptation of AERP and inducibility of AF was slower at the LA than at the RA and Bachmann's bundle. CONCLUSIONS: The LA had a slower recovery of tachycardia-induced changes of atrial electrophysiological properties, and this might play a critical role in initiation of AF. (+info)
(3/5583) Effect of 5-HT4 receptor stimulation on the pacemaker current I(f) in human isolated atrial myocytes.
OBJECTIVE: 5-HT4 receptors are present in human atrial cells and their stimulation has been implicated in the genesis of atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation. An I(f)-like current has been recorded in human atrial myocytes, where it is modulated by beta-adrenergic stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on I(f) electrophysiological properties, in order to get an insight into the possible contribution of I(f) to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atria. METHODS: Human atrial myocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion from samples of atrial appendage of patients undergoing coeffective cardiac surgery. Patch-clamped cells were superfused with a modified Tyrode's solution in order to amplify I(f) and reduce overlapping currents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A time-dependent, cesium-sensitive increasing inward current, that we had previously described having the electrophysiological properties of the pacemaker current I(f), was elicited by negative steps (-60 to -130 mV) from a holding potential of -40 mV. Boltzmann fit of control activation curves gave a midpoint (V1/2) of -88.9 +/- 2.6 mV (n = 14). 5-HT (1 microM) consistently caused a positive shift of V1/2 of 11.0 +/- 2.0 mV (n = 8, p < 0.001) of the activation curve toward less negative potentials, thus increasing the amount of current activated by clamp steps near the physiological maximum diastolic potential of these cells. The effect was dose-dependent, the EC50 being 0.14 microM. Maximum current amplitude was not changed by 5-HT. 5-HT did not increase I(f) amplitude when the current was maximally activated by cAMP perfused into the cell. The selective 5-HT4 antagonists, DAU 6285 (10 microM) and GR 125487 (1 microM), completely prevented the effect of 5-HT on I(f). The shift of V1/2 caused by 1 microM 5-HT in the presence of DAU 6285 or GR 125487 was 0.3 +/- 1 mV (n = 6) and 1.0 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 5), respectively (p < 0.01 versus 5-HT alone). The effect of 5-HT4 receptor blockade was specific, since neither DAU 6285 nor GR 125487 prevented the effect of 1 microM isoprenaline on I(f). Thus, 5-HT4 stimulation increases I(f) in human atrial myocytes; this effect may contribute to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atrium. (+info)
(4/5583) Effects of cycloprotobuxine-A on atrial fibrillation.
AIM: To study the effects of cycloprotobuxine-A (Cyc-A) on atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Atrial fibrillations in vivo and in vitro were induced by arrhythmogenic drugs. Action potentials were measured by the standard microelectrode technique. RESULTS: Cyc-A, similar to or slightly stronger than amiodarone (Ami), decreased incidences of atrial fibrillation elicited by CaCl2-acetylcholine in mice and increased doses of aconitine, ouabain, or adrenaline to elicit atrial fibrillation in isolated guinea pig atria. Cyc-A 0.3-100 mumol.L-1 decreased the normal automaticity and 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 attenuated or almost abolished the isoprenaline-induced abnormal increase in automaticity in sinus nodal cells. In isolated left atria, Cyc-A 0.3-30 mumol.L-1 inhibited the abnormal rhythmic activity elicited by adrenaline, prolonged action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period, and reduced excitability. At 3-30 mumol.L-1, Cyc-A also decreased the maximal velocity of depolarization (Vmax). Cyc-A antagonized the acetylcholine-induced shortening of APD. These electrophysiologic effects were similar to those of amiodarone, but Ami did not affect the Vmax. CONCLUSION: Cyc-A produces a protective effect against experimental atrial fibrillation via a prolongation of repolarization, a decease of automaticity, and an inhibition of excitability. (+info)
(5/5583) Atrioventricular nodal ablation and implantation of mode switching dual chamber pacemakers: effective treatment for drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of atrioventricular node ablation and implantation of a dual chamber, mode switching pacemaker on quality of life, exercise capacity, and left ventricular systolic function in patients with drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. PATIENTS: 18 consecutive patients with drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Quality of life was assessed before and after the procedure using the psychological general wellbeing index (PGWB), the McMaster health index (MHI), and a visual analogue scale for cardiac symptoms. Nine of the patients also underwent symptom limited exercise tests and echocardiography to assess left ventricular systolic function. RESULTS: The procedure allowed a reduction in antiarrhythmic drug treatment (p < 0.01). PGWB and symptom scores improved (p < 0.01) but the MHI score did not change. Left ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Atrioventricular node ablation and implantation of a DDDR/MS pacemaker is effective treatment for refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, producing improved quality of life while allowing a reduction in drug burden. The popularity of the treatment is justified, but further studies are needed to determine optimum timing of intervention. (+info)
(6/5583) Predictors of atrial rhythm after atrioventricular node ablation for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the natural history of the atrial rhythm of patients with paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias undergoing atrioventricular node ablation and permanent pacemaker implantation. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients identified from the pacemaker database and electrophysiology records of a tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS: 62 consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias undergoing atrioventricular node ablation and permanent pacemaker implantation between 1988 and July 1996. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Atrial rhythm on final follow up ECG, classified as either ordered (sinus rhythm or atrial pacing) or disordered (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter or atrial tachycardia). (2) Chronic atrial fibrillation, defined as a disordered rhythm on two consecutive ECGs (or throughout a 24 hour Holter recording) with no ordered rhythm subsequently documented. RESULTS: Survival analysis showed that 75% of patients progressed to chronic atrial fibrillation by 2584 days (86 months). On multiple logistic regression analysis a history of electrical cardioversion, increasing patient age, and VVI pacing were associated with the development of chronic atrial fibrillation. A history of electrical cardioversion and increasing patient age were associated with a disordered atrial rhythm on the final follow up ECG. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias are at high risk of developing chronic atrial fibrillation. A history of direct current cardioversion. (+info)
(7/5583) Differential effects of defibrillation on systemic and cardiac sympathetic activity.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of defibrillation shocks on cardiac and circulating catecholamines. DESIGN: Prospective examination of myocardial catecholamine balance during dc shock by simultaneous determination of arterial and coronary sinus plasma concentrations. Internal countershocks (10-34 J) were applied in 30 patients after initiation of ventricular fibrillation for a routine implantable cardioverter defibrillator test. Another 10 patients were externally cardioverted (50-360 J) for atrial fibrillation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transcardiac noradrenaline, adrenaline, and lactate gradients immediately after the shock. RESULTS: After internal shock, arterial noradrenaline increased from a mean (SD) of 263 (128) pg/ml at baseline to 370 (148) pg/ml (p = 0.001), while coronary sinus noradrenaline fell from 448 (292) to 363 (216) pg/ml (p = 0.01), reflecting a shift from cardiac net release to net uptake. After external shock delivery, there was a similar increase in arterial noradrenaline, from 260 (112) to 459 (200) pg/ml (p = 0.03), while coronary sinus noradrenaline remained unchanged. Systemic adrenaline increased 11-fold after external shock (p = 0.01), outlasting the threefold rise following internal shock (p = 0.001). In both groups, a negative transmyocardial adrenaline gradient at baseline decreased further, indicating enhanced myocardial uptake. Cardiac lactate production occurred after ventricular fibrillation and internal shock, but not after external cardioversion, so the neurohumoral changes resulted from the defibrillation process and not from alterations in oxidative metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: A dc shock induces marked systemic sympathoadrenal and sympathoneuronal activation, but attenuates cardiac sympathetic activity. This might promote the transient myocardial depression observed after electrical discharge to the heart. (+info)
(8/5583) Superiority of ibutilide (a new class III agent) over DL-sotalol in converting atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. The Ibutilide/Sotalol Comparator Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of a single dose of ibutilide, a new class III antiarrhythmic drug, with that of DL-sotalol in terminating chronic atrial fibrillation or flutter in haemodynamically stable patients. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised study. SETTING: 43 European hospitals. PATIENTS: 308 patients (mean age 60 years, 70% men, 48% with heart disease) with sustained atrial fibrillation (n = 251) or atrial flutter (n = 57) (duration three hours to 45 days) were randomised to three groups to receive a 10 minute infusion of 1 mg ibutilide (n = 99), 2 mg ibutilide (n = 106), or 1.5 mg/kg DL-sotalol (n = 103). Infusion was discontinued at termination of the arrhythmia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Successful conversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter, defined as termination of arrhythmia within one hour of treatment. RESULTS: Both drugs were more effective against atrial flutter than against atrial fibrillation. Ibutilide was superior to DL-sotalol for treating atrial flutter (70% and 56% v 19%), while the high dose of ibutilide was more effective for treating atrial fibrillation than DL-sotalol (44% v 11%) and the lower dose of ibutilide (44% v 20%, p < 0.01). The mean (SD) time to arrhythmia termination was 13 (7) minutes with 2 mg ibutilide, 19 (15) minutes with 1 mg ibutilide, and 25 (17) minutes with DL-sotalol. In all patients, the duration of arrhythmia before treatment was a predictor of arrhythmia termination, although this was less obvious in the group that received 2 mg ibutilide. This dose converted almost 48% of atrial fibrillation that was present for more than 30 days. Concomitant use of digitalis or nifedipine and prolongation of the QTc interval were not predictive of arrhythmia termination. Bradycardia (6.5%) and hypotension (3.7%) were more common side effects with DL-sotalol. Of 211 patients given ibutilide, two (0.9%) who received the higher dose developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, one of whom required direct current cardioversion. CONCLUSION: Ibutilide (given in 1 or 2 mg doses over 10 minutes) is highly effective for rapidly terminating persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. This new class III drug, under monitored conditions, is a potential alternative to currently available cardioversion options. (+info)