An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase paralog with a catalytic role in histidine biosynthesis.
In addition to their essential catalytic role in protein biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases participate in numerous other functions, including regulation of gene expression and amino acid biosynthesis via transamidation pathways. Herein, we describe a class of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like (HisZ) proteins based on the catalytic core of the contemporary class II histidyl-tRNA synthetase whose members lack aminoacylation activity but are instead essential components of the first enzyme in histidine biosynthesis ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (HisG). Prediction of the function of HisZ in Lactococcus lactis was assisted by comparative genomics, a technique that revealed a link between the presence or the absence of HisZ and a systematic variation in the length of the HisG polypeptide. HisZ is required for histidine prototrophy, and three other lines of evidence support the direct involvement of HisZ in the transferase function. (i) Genetic experiments demonstrate that complementation of an in-frame deletion of HisG from Escherichia coli (which does not possess HisZ) requires both HisG and HisZ from L. lactis. (ii) Coelution of HisG and HisZ during affinity chromatography provides evidence of direct physical interaction. (iii) Both HisG and HisZ are required for catalysis of the ATP phosphoribosyltransferase reaction. This observation of a common protein domain linking amino acid biosynthesis and protein synthesis implies an early connection between the biosynthesis of amino acids and proteins. (+info)
Specific binding of the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis to the DNA of histidine operon.
Studies were done to examine direct binding of the first enzyme of the histidine biosynthetic pathway (phosphoribosyltransferase) to 32P-labeled phi80dhis DNA and competition of this binding by unlabeled homologous DNA and by various preparations of unlabeled heterologous DNA, including that from a defective phi80 bacteriophage carrying the histidine operon with a deletion of part of its operator region. Our findings show that phosphoribosyltransferase binds specifically to site in or near the regulatory region of the histidine operon. The stability of the complex formed by interaction of the enzyme with the DNA was markedly decreased by the substrates of the enzyme and was slightly increased by the allosteric inhibitor, histidine. These findings are consistent with previous data that indicate that phosphoribosyltransferase plays a role in regulating expression of the histidine operon. (+info)
Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense (Halacsy).
To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, we investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (THG1, GenBank accession no. AF003347), imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase (THB1, GenBank accession no. AF023140), and histidinol dehydrogenase (THD1, GenBank accession no. AF023141) were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His auxotrophs. Northern analysis of THG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. We were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi arvense revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. We therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni. (+info)
Molecular cloning and characterization of ATP-phosphoribosyl transferase from Arabidopsis, a key enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway.
We have characterized two isoforms of ATP-phosphoribosyl transferase (ATP-PRT) from Arabidopsis (AtATP-PRT1 [accession no. AB025251] and AtATP-PRT2), catalyzing the first step of the pathway of hisidine (His) biosynthesis. The primary structures deduced from AtATP-PRT1 and AtATP-PRT2 cDNAs share an overall amino acid identity of 74.6% and contain N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide sequences. DNA-blot analyses indicated that the ATP-PRTs in Arabidopsis are encoded by two separate genes with a closely similar gene structural organization. Both gene transcripts were detected throughout development, and protein-blot analysis revealed predominant accumulation of the AtATP-PRT proteins in Arabidopsis leaves. The His auxotrophy of a his1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was suppressed by the transformation with AtATP-PRT1 and AtATP-PRT2 cDNAs, indicating that both isoforms are functionally active ATP-PRT enzymes. The K(m) values for ATP and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate of the recombinant AtATP-PRT proteins were comparable to those of the native ATP-PRTs from higher plants and bacteria. It was demonstrated that the recombinant AtATP-PRTs were inhibited by L-His (50% inhibition of initial activity = 40-320 microM), suggesting that His biosynthesis was regulated in plants through feedback inhibition by L-His. (+info)
Evidence against a covalent intermediate in the adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase reaction of histidine biosynthesis.
14C-Labeled 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose-1-diphosphate (PRibPP) was synthesized and its interaction with adenosine triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase was examined by gel filtration in a search for a form of this substrate covalently bound to the enzyme. Wide variation in solvent conditions gave little labeling of the enzyme. Heavy labeling was found only in the presence of the second substrate, ATP, and this was shown to arise from tightly but noncovalently bound product. Previous reports of a covalent intermediate in this enzymatic reaction probably were due to contaminating ATP in 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose-1-diphosphate. Feedback inhibition of the enzyme by histidine was shown to occur at the step giving product or at some earlier step in the mechanism. (+info)
trans-Recessive mutation in the first structural gene of the histidine operon that results in constitutive expression of the operon.
The first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis, encoded in the hisG gene, is involved in regulation of expression of the histidine operon in Salmonella typhimurium. The studies reported here concern the question of how expression of the histidine operon is affected by a mutation in the hisG gene that alters the allosteric site of the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis, rendering the enzyme completely resistant to inhibition by histidine. The intracellular concentrations of the enzymes encoded in the histidine operon in a strain carrying such a mutation on an episome and missing the chromosomal hisG gene are three- to fourfold higher than in a strain carrying a wild-type hisG gene on the episome. The histidine operon on such a strain fails to derepress in response to histidine limitation and fails to repress in response to excess histidine. Furthermore, utilizing other merodiploid strains, we demonstrate that the wild-type hisG gene is trans dominant to the mutant allele with respect to this regulatory phenomenon. Examination of the regulation of the histidine operon in strains carrying the feedback-resistant mutation in an episome and hisT and hisW mutations in the chromosome showed that the hisG regulatory mutation is epistatic to the hisT and hisW mutations. These data provide additional evidence that the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis is involved in autogenous regulation of expression of the histidine operon. (+info)
Derepression and repression of the histidine operon: role of the feedback site of the first enzyme.
Thiazolealanine, a false feedback inhibitor, causes transient repression of the his operon previously derepressed by a severe histidine limitation in strains with a wild-type or feedback-hypersensitive first enzyme but not in feedback-resistant mutants. Since experiments reported here clearly demonstrate that thiazolealanine is not transferred to tRNAHis, it is proposed that this "transient repression" is effected through the interaction of thiazolealanine with the feedback site of the enzyme. Experiments in the presence of rifampin indicate that this thiazolealanine-mediated effect is exerted at the level of translation. We conclude that histidine (free), in addition to forming co-repressor, also represses the operon at the level of translation through feedback interaction with the first enzyme of the pathway (adenosine 5'-triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase). Rates of derepression in feedback-resistant strains are roughly half of those observed in controls, suggesting a positive role played by a first enzyme with a normal but unoccupied feedback site. Some feedback-resistant mutants, in contrast to the wild type, were unable to exhibit derepression under histidine limitation caused by aminotriazole. (+info)
Affinity labelling to - SH groups in adenosine - triphosphate - phosphoribosyl transferase with the dinitrophenyl group from S-dinitrophenyl-6-mercaptopurine-riboside 5'-phosphate.
Adenosine-triphosphate-phosphoribosyl transferase from Escherichia coli reacts with S-dinitrophenyl-6-mercaptopurine-riboside 5'-phosphate. In this reaction the dinitrophenyl group becomes attached to the enzyme, while the nucleotide is split off. Most aliphatic high and low-molecular-weight-SH compounds react with the thioether in the opposite way, i.e. bind the nucleotide and split off dinitrothiophenol. It appears that the dinitrophenyl moiety of the thioether interacts with the enzyme in a specific way, and that this interaction activates the bond between the dinitrophenyl group and the sulfur atom. In support of this it was found that dinitrophenol inhibits the transferase reaction with half maximal effect at 0.4 mM. The inhibition is competitive with ATP. Dinitrophenol also competes with ATP in binding studies. (+info)