Cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity to citric acid challenge during a simulated ascent to extreme altitude.
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of cough and the citric acid cough threshold during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. Subjects were studied during Operation Everest 3. Eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m over 31 days in a hypobaric chamber. Frequency of nocturnal cough was measured using voice-activated tape recorders, and cough threshold by inhalation of increasing concentrations of citric acid aerosol. Spirometry was performed before and after each test. Subjects recorded symptoms of acute mountain sickness and arterial oxygen saturation daily. Air temperature and humidity were controlled during the operation. Cough frequency increased with increasing altitude, from a median of 0 coughs (range 0-4) at sea level to 15 coughs (range 3-32) at a simulated altitude of 8,000 m. Cough threshold was unchanged on arrival at 5,000 m compared to sea level (geometric mean difference (GMD) 1.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-2.1, p=0.5), but fell on arrival at 8,000 m compared to sea level (GMD 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.3, p=0.043). There was no relationship between cough threshold and symptoms of acute mountain sickness, oxygen saturation or forced expiratory volume in one second. Temperature and humidity in the chamber were controlled between 18-24 degrees C and 30-60%, respectively. These results confirm an increase in cough frequency and cough receptor sensitivity associated with hypobaric hypoxia, and refute the hypothesis that high altitude cough is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. The small sample size makes further conclusions difficult, and the cause of altitude-related cough remains unclear. (+info)
Acute mountain sickness is not related to cerebral blood flow: a decompression chamber study.
To evaluate the pathogenetic role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes occurring before and during the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS), peak mean middle cerebral artery flow velocities () were assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in 10 subjects at 490-m altitude, and during three 12-min periods immediately (SA1), 3 (SA2), and 6 (SA3) h after decompression to a simulated altitude of 4,559 m. AMS cerebral scores increased from 0. 16 +/- 0.14 at baseline to 0.44 +/- 0.31 at SA1, 1.11 +/- 0.88 at SA2 (P < 0.05), and 1.43 +/- 1.03 at SA3 (P < 0.01); correspondingly, three, seven, and eight subjects had AMS. Absolute and relative at simulated altitude, expressed as percentages of low-altitude values (%), did not correlate with AMS cerebral scores. Average % remained unchanged, because % increased in three and remained unchanged or decreased in seven subjects at SA2 and SA3. These results suggest that CBF is not important in the pathogenesis of AMS and shows substantial interindividual differences during the first hours at simulated altitude. (+info)
Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone.
Male A/J strain mice were fed AIN-76A diet supplemented with myo-inositol/dexamethasone (10 g and 0.5 mg/kg diet) or acetylsalicylic acid (300 mg/kg) and exposed for 5 months to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke at a concentration of 132 mg total suspended particulates/m3. After tobacco smoke exposure, they were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air. In the animals fed AIN-75A diet alone or acetylsalicylic acid, the average number of tumors/lung was 2.1, whereas in the animals given the myo-inositol/dexamethasone diet, the average lung tumor multiplicity was 1.0 (P < 0.05). In animals exposed to filtered air, lung tumor multiplicities were 0.6 for animals fed AIN-76A or myo-inositol/dexamethasone and 1.2 for animals fed acetylsalicylic acid. It was concluded that the combination of myo-inositol and dexamethasone constitutes an effective chemopreventive regimen against tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis. (+info)
Biotransformation and kinetics of excretion of methyl-tert-butyl ether in rats and humans.
Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an additive to gasoline to increase oxygen content and reduce tail pipe emission of pollutants. Therefore, widespread human exposure may occur. To contribute to the characterization of potential adverse effects of MTBE, its biotransformation was compared in humans and rats after inhalation exposure. Human volunteers (3 males and 3 females) and rats (5 each, males and females) were exposed to 4 (4.5 +/- 0.4) and 40 (38.7 +/- 3.2) ppm MTBE for 4 h in a dynamic exposure system. Urine samples from rats and humans were collected for 72 h in 6-h intervals, and blood samples were taken in regular intervals for 48 h. In urine, MTBE and the MTBE metabolites tertiary-butanol (t-butanol), 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol, and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were quantified; MTBE and t-butanol were determined in blood samples. After the end of the exposure period, inhalation of 40 ppm MTBE resulted in blood concentrations of MTBE 5.9 +/- 1.8 microM in rats and 6.7 +/- 1.6 microM in humans. The MTBE blood concentrations after inhalation of 4 ppm MTBE were 2.3 +/- 1.0 in rats and 1.9 +/- 0.4 microM in humans. MTBE was rapidly cleared from blood with a half-life of 2.6 +/- 0.9 h in humans and 0.5 +/- 0.2 h in rats. The blood concentrations of t-butanol were 21.8 +/- 3.7 microM in humans and 36.7 +/- 10.8 microM in rats after 40 ppm MTBE, and 2.6 +/- 0.3 in humans and 2.9 +/- 0.5 in rats after 4 ppm MTBE. In humans, t-butanol was cleared from blood with a half-life of 5.3 +/- 2.1 h. In urine samples from controls and in samples collected from the volunteers and rats before the exposure, low concentrations of t-butanol, 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were present. In urine of both humans and rats exposed to MTBE, the concentrations of these compounds were significantly increased. 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate was recovered as a major excretory product in urine; t-butanol and 2-methyl-1,2-propane diol were minor metabolites. All metabolites of MTBE excreted with urine were rapidly eliminated in both species after the end of the MTBE exposure. Elimination half-lives for the different urinary metabolites of MTBE were between 7.8 and 17.0 h in humans and 2.9 to 5.0 h in rats. The obtained data indicate that MTBE biotransformation and excretion are similar in rats and humans, and MTBE and its metabolites are rapidly excreted in both species. Between 35 and 69% of the MTBE retained after the end of the exposure was recovered as metabolites in urine of both humans and rats. (+info)
Absence of prenatal developmental toxicity from inhaled arsenic trioxide in rats.
A review of the literature revealed no published inhalational developmental toxicity studies of arsenic performed according to modern regulatory guidelines and with exposure throughout gestation. In the present study, inorganic arsenic, as arsenic trioxide (As(+3), As2O3), was administered via whole-body inhalational exposure to groups of twenty-five Crl:CD(SD)BR female rats for six h per day every day, beginning fourteen days prior to mating and continuing throughout mating and gestation. Exposures were begun prior to mating in order to achieve a biological steady state of As(+3) in the dams prior to embryonal-fetal development. In a preliminary exposure range-finding study, half of the females that had been exposed to arsenic trioxide at 25 mg/m3 died or were euthanized in extremis. In the definitive study, target exposure levels were 0.3, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/m3. Maternal toxicity, which was determined by the occurrence of rales, a decrease in net body weight gain, and a decrease in food intake during pre-mating and gestational exposure, was observed only at the 10 mg/m3 exposure level. Intrauterine parameters (mean numbers of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions and viable fetuses, and mean fetal weights) were unaffected by treatment. No treatment-related malformations or developmental variations were noted at any exposure level. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity was 3.0 mg/m3; the NOAEL for developmental toxicity was greater than or equal to 10 mg/m3, 760 times both the time-weighted average threshold limit value (TLV) and the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for humans. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that arsenic trioxide, when administered via whole-body inhalation to pregnant rats, is not a developmental toxicant. (+info)
Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice.
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline. (+info)
Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats.
Mated female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats, 25/group, were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) vapor, for six h/day on gestational days (gd) 6 through 15, at 0.00, 0.02, 0.10, or 0.50 p.p.m.. Maternal clinical signs, body weights, and feed and water consumption were recorded throughout gestation. At termination (gd 21), maternal body, gravid uterine, and liver weights were recorded. Corpora lutea were counted, and implantation sites were identified: resorptions and dead and live fetuses. All live fetuses were examined for external alterations. One-half of the live fetuses/litter were examined for visceral (including craniofacial) alterations. The remaining intact fetuses/litter were stained with alizarin red S and examined for ossified skeletal alterations. Maternal toxicity at 0.50 ppm consisted of reduced body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and clinical signs of toxicity. Water consumption was unaffected. Gestational parameters exhibited no significant treatment-related changes, including pre- and postimplantation loss, sex ratio/litter, or fetal body weights/litter. Incidences of individual malformations, malformations by category (external, visceral, and skeletal), total malformations, individual external and visceral variations, variations by category, and total variations were unaffected. Of 111 skeletal variants observed, only 1, incidence of poorly ossified cervical centrum 5, was increased at 0.50 ppm, indicating possible minimal fetotoxicity, although it occurred in the absence of any other indications of developmental toxicity. Therefore, exposure to TDI vapor by inhalation, during major organogenesis in CD rats, resulted in maternal toxicity and minimal fetotoxicity at 0.50 ppm no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity was 0.10 ppm. No treatment-related embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed. (+info)
Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of inhaled toluene diisocyanate vapor in CD rats.
Twenty-eight 42-day-old pups/sex/group (F0) were exposed to toluene diisocyanate vapor (TDI; 80% 2,4-TDI, 20% 2,6-TDI) by inhalation at 0.0, 0.02, 0.08, or 0.3 ppm, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 10 weeks, then mated within groups for 3 weeks, with exposure 7 days/week during mating, gestation, and lactation. F0 maternal animals were not exposed from gestational day (gd) 20 through postnatal day (pnd) 4; maternal exposures resumed on pnd 5. Twenty-eight weanlings/sex/group continued exposure for 12 weeks (starting on pnd 28) and were bred as described above. F0 and F1 parents and ten F1 and F2 weanlings/sex/group were necropsied, and adult reproductive organs, pituitary, liver, kidneys, and upper respiratory tract (target organs) were evaluated histologically in ten/sex/group. Adult toxicity was observed in both sexes and generations at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm, including occasional reductions in body weights and weight gain, clinical signs of toxicity at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm, and histologic changes in the nasal cavities at 0.02, 0.08, and 0.3 ppm (including rhinitis, a nonspecific response to an irritating vapor, at all concentrations). There was no reproductive toxicity, reproductive organ pathology, or effect on gestation or lactation at any exposure concentration. Postnatal toxicity and reduced body weights and weight gains during lactation occurred only in F2 litters at 0.08 and 0.3 ppm. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was not determined for adult toxicity; the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity was at least 0.3 ppm, and the NOAEL for postnatal toxicity was 0.02 ppm. (+info)