The reciprocal relationship between sexual victimization and sexual assertiveness.
(9/45)Low sexual assertiveness has been proposed as a possible mechanism through which sexual revictimization occurs, yet evidence for this has been mixed. In this study, prospective path analysis was used to examine the relationship between sexual refusal assertiveness and sexual victimization over time among a community sample of women. Results provide support for a reciprocal relationship, with historical victimization predicting low sexual assertiveness and low sexual assertiveness predicting subsequent victimization. The effect of recent sexual victimization on subsequent sexual assertiveness also was replicated prospectively. These findings suggest that strengthening sexual assertiveness may help reduce vulnerability to future victimization. (+info)
Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors.
(10/45)STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe adolescent girls' perceptions of sexual assertiveness and examine the relationship of these perceptions with developmental and interpersonal variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Participants were recruited from a school-based health clinic and local colleges, and through snowballing to participate in a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. PARTICIPANTS: 106 sexually experienced girls (ages 14 through 21 years). METHODS: Girls described their demographics, sexual history, and romantic relationships and completed the Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women (SAS-W), which assesses perceptions of sexual assertiveness: Initiation of Sex, Refusal of Unwanted Sex, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. RESULTS: Girls perceived themselves as asserting themselves between 50% and 75% of the time with their current or most recent partner. The Initiation subscale was not related to the other two subscales. In final models, girls with a prior pregnancy perceived themselves as initiating sex more than girls without a prior pregnancy. Having a greater number of lifetime partners was related to perceptions of less refusal, whereas greater number of partners, being sexually experienced longer, and engaging in more unprotected sex were related to perceptions of less implementation of preventive methods. None of the relationship variables were related to scores on any subscale. CONCLUSIONS: Most of these girls perceived themselves as sexually assertive. Given that sexual experience, not relationship factors, were related to perceptions of sexual assertiveness, the design of counseling messages should incorporate sexual experience. These messages should find effective ways to help girls both to communicate their sexual desires and to enhance their ability to protect themselves. (+info)
Psychological treatment of comorbid asthma and panic disorder: a pilot study.
(11/45)We evaluated two protocols for treating adults with comorbid asthma and panic disorder. The protocols included elements of Barlow's panic control therapy and elements of Barlow's "panic control therapy" and several asthma education programs, as well as modules designed to teach participants how to differentiate asthma and panic symptoms, and how to apply specific home management strategies for each. Fifty percent of subjects dropped out of a 14-session protocol by the eighth session; however, 83% of patients were retained in an eight-session protocol. Clinical results were mostly equivalent: significant decreases of >50% in panic symptoms, clinically significant decreases in asthma symptoms, improvement in asthma quality of life, and maintenance of clinical stability in asthma. Albuterol use decreased significantly in the 14-session protocol and at a borderline level I the 8-session protocol, while pulmonary function was maintained. A controlled evaluation of this procedure is warranted. (+info)
Assertive community treatment--issues from scientific and clinical literature with implications for practice.
(12/45)This review describes Assertive community treatment (ACT), an integral component of the care of persons with severe mental illness. Drawing on research from North America, Australasia, and Britain, we summarize the current evidence base for ACT and examine the trends and issues that may affect practice. Strong evidence supports the fidelity standardization, efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of ACT models in psychiatry. Yet, significant methodological problems and issues affect implementation. The evidence indicates that the ACT model is one of the most effective systematic models for organizing clinical and functional interventions in psychiatry. Effective systems based on the ACT model meet more ACT fidelity criteria; are often noncoercive; do not rely on compulsory orders; may rely on a wider range of interventions than just medication adherence, including vocational and substance abuse rehabilitation; contain other evidence-based interventions and more mobile in vivo interventions; involve individual and team case management; may involve consumers as direct service providers; and have an interdisciplinary workforce and support structure within the team, providing some protection from work-related stress or burnout. (+info)
Media resistance skills and drug skill refusal techniques: What is their relationship with alcohol use among inner-city adolescents?
Parental attitudes and social competence in adolescents.
(14/45)The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships among perceived parental attitudes and domains of social competence in late adolescents. Forty boys and 40 girls, all aged 18, representing a population sample of high school second graders were examined. Self-report data were collected using questionnaires of parent-child relations and of social competence. Analyses detected a significant association between the maternal loving or protective attitude and competence in interpersonal relations in the combined sample of adolescents. However, gender was a moderator of this general relationship. Maternal control fostered their sons' interpersonal relations, and no such relationship was observed toward daughters. Adolescents' behavior was somehow less influenced by fatherly control. The findings are in line with the concept of familism as a dominant form of family organization, but implicate constraints in parental sentiments whose overly expression may backfire and do more harm than good in other domains of social competence of adolescents, such as assertiveness and performance during social exposure. The study may contribute to future research on how parenting style shapes adolescent social outcomes. (+info)
A pilot intervention for pregnant women in Sichuan, China on passive smoking.
Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.