Competence skills help deter smoking among inner city adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To test whether higher levels of general competence are linked to more frequent use of refusal assertiveness that is in turn related to less subsequent smoking among inner city adolescents. METHODS: Longitudinal study conducted during three year middle school or junior high school period. A sample of 1459 students attending 22 middle (ages 11-14 years) and junior high (ages 12-15 years) schools in New York City participated. Students completed surveys at baseline, one year follow up, and two year follow up. The students self reported smoking, decision making skills, personal efficacy, and refusal assertiveness. Teams of three to five data collectors administered the questionnaire following a standardised protocol. These data were collected in school during a regular 40 minute class period. RESULTS: Based on the tested structural equation model, decision making and personal efficacy (that is, general competence) predicted higher refusal assertiveness and this greater assertiveness predicted less smoking at the two year follow up. The tested model had a good fit and was parsimonious and consistent with theory. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent smoking prevention programmes often teach refusal skills in order to help youth resist peer pressure to smoke. The present findings suggest that teaching general competence skills as well may help to reduce smoking because youth with better personal efficacy and decision making skills are better able to implement smoking refusal strategies. (+info)
Coronary-prone behavior among Japanese men.
The Japanese Coronary-prone Behavior Scale (JCBS) is a questionnaire developed by the Eastern Collaborative Group Study (ECGS), a multi-center study of coronary-prone behavior among Japanese men in Japan. From the JCBS, a subscale was extracted consisting of 9 items that were independently associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG). The subscale, named Scale C, represents job-centered lifestyle, social dominance, and suppressed overt type A behavior. To further validate the association of Scale C with CAD among Japanese men, the present study examined if such an association would be observed in a newly sampled population. The JCBS was carried out by 311 men undergoing CAG. The association between Scale C score and the presence of CAD was evaluated with logistic regression analysis that included established coronary risk factors. The Scale C score was significantly higher in subjects with CAD than in those without and stepwise multivariate logistic regression showed that the Scale C score was associated with the presence of CAD independent of age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. These results indicate that the Scale C score is independently associated with the presence of CAD even among a newly sampled population of Japanese men undergoing CAG. Scale C may reflect an important feature of coronary-prone behavior among Japanese men. (+info)
Decreased risk of alcohol dependence and/or misuse in women with high self-assertiveness and leadership abilities.
AIMS: To analyse dimensions of gender identity and its association to psychiatric disorders and alcohol consumption. METHODS: The study was performed in two stages: an initial screening (n = 8335) for alcohol consumption, followed by a structured psychiatric interview (n = 1054). The Masculinity/Femininity-Questionnaire was used as an indicator of gender identity. The final study group included 836 women. RESULTS: Leadership, caring, self-assertiveness and emotionality were dimensions of gender identity found in a factor analysis. Low self-assertiveness, high emotionality and to some extent low leadership were associated with increased odds for having bipolar disorders, severe anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence and misuse. Low self-assertiveness and high emotionality were not only associated with alcohol dependence and misuse, but also with high episodic drinking. CONCLUSIONS: There was an association between some of the dimensions of gender identity and psychiatric disorders and alcohol consumption. Further attention is needed in both clinical work and research. (+info)
Client narratives: a theoretical perspective.
The role of subjective client narratives in health care represents a clinical and therapeutic tool, useful in complementing objective, scientific data. Of particular interest to mental health practitioners is the role narratives play as a therapeutic tool to guide clinical practice. This paper lays a foundation for understanding the importance of narrative in the psychotherapeutic process. It provides a brief overview of narrative theory and methods of structural analysis in order to provide a theoretical approach that can be utilized by nurses to address clients' needs. (+info)
Developing essential professional skills: a framework for teaching and learning about feedback.
BACKGROUND: The ability to give and receive feedback effectively is a key skill for doctors, aids learning between all levels of the medical hierarchy, and provides a basis for reflective practice and life-long learning. How best to teach this skill? DISCUSSION: We suggest that a single "teaching the skill of feedback" session provides superficial and ineffective learning in a medical culture that often uses feedback skills poorly or discourages feedback. Our experience suggests that both the skill and the underlying attitude informing its application must be addressed, and is best done so longitudinally and reiteratively using different forms of feedback delivery. These feedback learning opportunities include written and oral, peer to peer and cross-hierarchy, public and private, thereby addressing different cognitive processes and attitudinal difficulties. SUMMARY: We conclude by asking whether it is possible to build a consensus approach to a framework for teaching and learning feedback skills? (+info)
A randomised multicentre trial of integrated versus standard treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of integrated treatment for patients with a first episode of psychotic illness. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Copenhagen Hospital Corporation and Psychiatric Hospital Aarhus, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 547 patients with first episode of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. INTERVENTIONS: Integrated treatment and standard treatment. The integrated treatment lasted for two years and consisted of assertive community treatment with programmes for family involvement and social skills training. Standard treatment offered contact with a community mental health centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychotic and negative symptoms (each scored from 0 to a maximum of 5) at one and two years' follow-up. RESULTS: At one year's follow-up, psychotic symptoms changed favourably to a mean of 1.09 (standard deviation 1.27) with an estimated mean difference between groups of -0.31 (95% confidence interval -0.55 to -0.07, P = 0.02) in favour of integrated treatment. Negative symptoms changed favourably with an estimated difference between groups of -0.36 (-0.54 to -0.17, P < 0.001) in favour of integrated treatment. At two years' follow-up the estimated mean difference between groups in psychotic symptoms was -0.32 (-0.58 to -0.06, P = 0.02) and in negative symptoms was -0.45 (-0.67 to -0.22, P < 0.001), both in favour of integrated treatment. Patients who received integrated treatment had significantly less comorbid substance misuse, better adherence to treatment, and more satisfaction with treatment. CONCLUSION: Integrated treatment improved clinical outcome and adherence to treatment. The improvement in clinical outcome was consistent at one year and two year follow-ups. (+info)
The REACT study: randomised evaluation of assertive community treatment in north London.
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of care from assertive community treatment teams with care by community mental health teams for people with serious mental illnesses. DESIGN: Non-blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two inner London boroughs. PARTICIPANTS: 251 men and women under the care of adult secondary mental health services with recent high use of inpatient care and difficulties engaging with community services. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment from assertive community treatment team (127 participants) or continuation of care from community mental health team (124 participants). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was inpatient bed use 18 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included symptoms, social function, client satisfaction, and engagement with services. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in inpatient bed use (median difference 1, 95% confidence interval -16 to 38) or in clinical or social outcomes for the two treatment groups. Clients who received care from the assertive community treatment team seemed better engaged (adapted homeless engagement acceptance schedule: difference in means 1.1, 1.0 to 1.9), and those who agreed to be interviewed were more satisfied with services (adapted client satisfaction questionnaire: difference in means 7.14, 0.9 to 13.4). CONCLUSIONS: Community mental health teams are able to support people with serious mental illnesses as effectively as assertive community treatment teams, but assertive community treatment may be better at engaging clients and may lead to greater satisfaction with services. (+info)
Conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder in persons with severe psychiatric and substance use disorders.
Conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are established risk factors for substance use disorders in both the general population and among persons with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses. Among clients with substance use disorders in the general population, CD and ASPD are associated with more severe problems and criminal justice involvement, but little research has examined their correlates in clients with dual disorders. To address this question, we compared the demographic, substance abuse, clinical, homelessness, sexual risk, and criminal justice characteristics of 178 dual disorder clients living in 2 urban areas between 4 groups: No CD/ASPD, CD Only, Adult ASPD Only, and Full ASPD. Clients in the Adult ASPD Only group tended to have the most severe drug abuse severity, the most extensive homelessness, and the most lifetime sexual partners, followed by the Full ASPD group, compared with the other 2 groups. However, clients with Full ASPD had the most criminal justice involvement, especially with respect to violent charges and convictions. The results suggest that a late-onset ASPD subtype may develop in clients with severe mental illness secondary to substance abuse, but that much criminal behavior in clients with dual disorders may be due to the early onset of the full ASPD syndrome in this population and not the effects of substance use disorders. (+info)