(1/1341) Correlates of intentions to obtain genetic counseling and colorectal cancer gene testing among at-risk relatives from three ethnic groups.
OBJECTIVES: An understanding of factors associated with interest in genetic counseling and intentions to obtain colorectal cancer susceptibility testing is an important foundation for developing education, counseling, and genetic services and policies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was mailed to first-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The respondents (n = 426, 77% response rate) are siblings and adult children of Caucasian, Japanese, and Hawaiian ethnicity. Data collection was guided by a conceptual framework and included questions on demographics, family cancer history, predisposing factors (cancer worry, perceived risk, well-being), and enabling factors (decision preferences, social support, and health care factors). Logistic regression analysis on two binary dependent variables (interest in counseling and intentions to get genetic testing) was performed using Generalized Estimating Equations to account for family clusters. RESULTS: Forty-five % of respondents were interested in genetic counseling, and 26% "definitely" intended to get genetic testing for colon cancer when available. For counseling interest, the most important predictors were education, Hawaiian ethnicity, cancer worry, and family support. Cancer worry, perceived risk, and age (older) were directly, and Japanese ethnicity was inversely, associated with testing intentions. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of interest in cancer genetic testing are similar to those found in other studies. Ethnic differences reveal a paradox between objective population risk (higher for Japanese) and greater concerns (among Hawaiians). The substantial lack of awareness of family history warrants further research. Culturally sensitive education and counseling are needed for managing the likely high demand for personalized information about hereditary cancer risk. (+info)
(2/1341) Cancer screening practices among primary care physicians serving Chinese Americans in San Francisco.
Previous research has reported a lack of regular cancer screening among Chinese Americans. The overall objectives of this study were to use a mail survey of primary care physicians who served Chinese Americans in San Francisco to investigate: a) the attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening and b) factors influencing the use of these cancer screening tests. The sampling frame for our mail survey consisted of: a) primary care physicians affiliated with the Chinese Community Health Plan and b) primary care physicians with a Chinese surname listed in the Yellow Pages of the 1995 San Francisco Telephone Directory. A 5-minute, self-administered questionnaire was developed and mailed to 80 physicians, and 51 primary care physicians completed the survey. A majority reported performing regular clinical breast examinations (84%) and teaching their patients to do self-breast examinations (84%). However, the rate of performing Pap smears was only 61% and the rate of ordering annual mammograms for patients aged 50 and older was 63%. The rates of ordering annual fecal occult blood testing and sigmoidoscopy at regular intervals of three to five years among patients aged 50 and older were 69% and 20%, respectively. Barriers (patient-specific, provider-specific, and practice logistics) to using cancer screening tests were identified. The data presented in this study provide a basis for developing interventions to increase performance of regular cancer screening among primary care physicians serving Chinese Americans. Cancer screening rates may be improved by targeting the barriers to screening identified among these physicians. Strategies to help physicians overcome these barriers are discussed. (+info)
(3/1341) Urinary excretion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in White, African-American, and Asian-American men in Los Angeles County.
Meats, such as beef, pork, poultry, and fish, cooked at high temperatures produce heterocyclic aromatic amines, which have been implicated indirectly as etiological agents involved in colorectal and other cancers in humans. This study examined the urinary excretion of a mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), among 45 African-American, 42 Asian-American (Chinese or Japanese), and 42 non-Hispanic white male residents of Los Angeles who consumed an unrestricted diet. Total PhIP (free and conjugated) was isolated from overnight urine collections, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography, and then quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Geometric mean levels of PhIP in Asian-Americans and African-Americans were approximately 2.8-fold higher than in whites. The urinary excretion levels of PhIP were not associated with intake frequencies of any cooked meat based on a self-administered dietary questionnaire, in contrast to our earlier finding (Ji et al., Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 3: 407-411, 1994) of a positive and statistically significant association between bacon intake and the urinary level of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) among this same group of study subjects. Although there is a statistically significant association between urinary levels of PhIP and MeIQx (2-sided P = 0.001), 10 subjects (8%) displayed extreme discordance between urinary PhIP and MeIQx levels. Several factors, including variable contents of heterocyclic aromatic amines in food, enzymic and interindividual metabolic differences, and analytical methodology determine the degree of concordance between the urinary excretion levels of PhIP and MeIQx. Accordingly, urinary excretion levels of a single heterocyclic aromatic amine can only serve as an approximate measure of another in estimating exposure to these compounds in humans consuming unrestricted diets. (+info)
(4/1341) Survival advantage in Asian American end-stage renal disease patients.
Survival advantage in Asian American end-stage renal disease patients. BACKGROUND: An earlier study documented a lower mortality risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Japan compared with the United States. We compared the mortality of Caucasian (white) and Asian American dialysis patients in the United States to evaluate whether Asian ancestry was associated with lower mortality in the United States. METHODS: The study sample from the U.S. Renal Data System census of ESRD patients treated in the United States included 84,192 white or Asian patients starting dialysis during May 1995 to April 1997, of whom 18,435 died by April 30, 1997. Patient characteristics were described by race. Relative mortality risks (RRs) for Asian Americans relative to whites were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for characteristics and comorbidities. Population death rates were derived from vital statistics for the United States and Japan by age and sex. RESULTS: Adjusting for demographics, diabetes, comorbidities, and nutritional factors, the RR for Asian Americans was 0.75 (P = 0.0001). Race-specific background population death rates accounted for over half of the race-related mortality difference. For whites, mortality decreased as the body mass index (BMI) increased. For Asians, the relationship between BMI and survival was u-shaped. The ratio of Asian American/white dialysis death rates and the ratio of Asian American/white general population death rates both varied by age in a similar pattern. The population death rates of Asian American and Japanese were also similar. CONCLUSION: Among dialysis patients, Asian Americans had a markedly lower adjusted RR than whites. The effect of BMI on survival differed by race. Compared with the respective general population, dialysis patients had the same relative increase in death rates for both races. The difference in death rates between the United States and Japan does not appear to be primarily treatment related, but rather is related to background death rates. (+info)
(5/1341) Genetic and dietary predictors of CYP2E1 activity: a phenotyping study in Hawaii Japanese using chlorzoxazone.
Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitrosoamines and low molecular weight organic compounds. An RsaI polymorphism is present in the 5'-flanking region of the CYP2E1 gene, which could possibly affect its transcription. However, the relationship between genotype and the phenotypic catalytic activity of the enzyme has not been defined. Also, the effects in humans of specific dietary factors, other than ethanol, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to modulate CYP2E1 activity, are unknown. Accordingly, the CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of chlorzoxazone to its 6-hydroxy metabolite was investigated in 50 healthy Japanese of both sexes in Hawaii. The oral clearance of the in vivo probe, the trait measure of CYP2E1 activity, was smaller than that reported in European-Americans. Significantly, after adjustment for age and sex, the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone decreased with the number of variant c2 alleles, and its mean in the c2/c2 genotype (147 ml/min) was statistically lower (P < or = 0.05) than that for either the homozygous wild-type (238 ml/min) or the heterozygote (201 ml/min) genotypes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that body weight was a major contributor to the interindividual variability in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone, accounting for 43% of the variance. Consumption of lettuce, broccoli, and black tea explained additional components of the variability (7, 5, and 6%, respectively), as did medication use (3%), age (4%), and CYP2E1 genotype (5%). Overall, 73% of the variance could be accounted for by these variables. Body weight, lettuce, and use of medications were associated with increased CYP2E1 activity, and the other covariates were associated with reduced enzyme function. Because of the role that CYP2E1 plays in procarcinogen activation, especially of N-nitrosamines involved in lung cancer, the identified factors may account in part for observed differences in individual susceptibility to disease and may also have implications for cancer prevention. (+info)
(6/1341) Cervical cancer screening among Cambodian-American women.
Southeast Asian women have higher invasive cervical cancer incidence rates and lower Pap testing frequencies than most other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, there is little information about the cervical cancer screening behavior of Cambodian-American women. Cambodian residents of Seattle were surveyed in person during late 1997 and early 1998. The PRECEDE model was used to guide the development of items that assessed predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors associated with cervical cancer screening participation. The estimated overall survey response was 72%. Four hundred thirteen women completed our questionnaire. Approximately one-quarter (24%) of the respondents had never had a Pap test, and over one-half (53%) had not been screened recently. The following variables were positively associated with a history of at least one Pap smear: younger age, greater number of years since immigration, belief about Pap testing for postmenopausal women, prenatal care in the United States, and physician recommendation. Women who believed in karma were less likely to have ever been screened for cervical cancer than those who did not. Six variables independently predicted recent screening: age; beliefs about regular checkups, cervical cancer screening for sexually inactive women, and the prolongation of life; having a female doctor; and a previous physician recommendation for Pap testing. The study findings indicate that culturally specific approaches might be effective in modifying the cervical cancer screening behavior of immigrant women. Programs targeting Cambodian-Americans are likely to be more effective if they are multifaceted and simultaneously address predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors. (+info)
(7/1341) Reproducibility and validity of radioimmunoassays for urinary hormones and metabolites in pre- and postmenopausal women.
The reproducibility of RIAs of circulating sex hormones has been evaluated as part of recent epidemiological investigations, but none seem to have addressed the reproducibility or validity of RIAs for urinary hormones or their metabolites. As part of a case-control study of breast cancer in Asian-American women, 12-h overnight urine samples were obtained, and a methodological study was conducted to identify laboratories capable of assaying urinary hormones. For the reproducibility component of this study, two laboratories with extensive experience in hormone assays measured urinary estrone, estradiol, estriol, pregnanediol glucuronide, and estrone glucuronide using samples from 15 women (5 midfollicular, 5 midluteal, and 5 postmenopausal). Variance estimates from these measurements were used to calculate the laboratory variability (coefficient of variation) and to assess the magnitude of the biological variability among the women in relation to the total variability (intraclass correlation coefficient). For the validity component, urinary estrone, estradiol, and estriol levels were measured in the same samples by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the laboratory of Dr. Herman Adlercreutz (University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland). We found that the degree of assay reproducibility differed between the laboratories, but that laboratory variability was usually low compared with the range of hormone values among women, particularly for the estrogens. Values for estrone and estradiol were well correlated among all of the laboratories. For estriol, the RIAs tended to overestimate levels compared with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. In one laboratory, assays for pregnanediol glucuronide and estrone glucuronide were consistently reproduced; in the other, the reproducibility of the RIA for pregnanediol glucuronide was problematic, and estrone glucuronide was not measured. Despite some limitations, urinary hormones and their metabolites can be reliably measured by current RIAs in large investigations attempting to link hormone level to disease risk and may be particularly advantageous for studies of postmenopausal women, where serum concentrations of estrone and estradiol are low and assay measurements are not as dependable. (+info)
(8/1341) Ethnicity and birthplace in relation to tumor size and stage in Asian American women with breast cancer.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether Asian American women with breast cancer have tumor characteristics associated with delayed detection of their disease. METHODS: Breast cancer size and stage were examined in relation to subjects' ethnic group and birthplace, on the basis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data. RESULTS: Asian-born Asian American women with breast cancer had a greater proportion of tumors larger than 1 cm at diagnosis (79%) than did US White women (70%) (P < .001). In contrast, the proportion of tumors larger than 1 cm among Asian American women born in the United States (67%) did not differ significantly from that among US White women. CONCLUSIONS: Lower utilization of breast cancer screening by Asian-born Asian American women is probably responsible for their greater proportion of tumors larger than 1 cm relative to US White women in the study population. Interventional measures should be taken to increase the use of mammographic screening by first-generation Asian American women. (+info)