Life expectancy in Central and Eastern European countries and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: changes by gender.
AIM: To examine changes in life expectancy at birth for countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) for the period 1989-1996. Differences in the change by gender were examined and several factors which likely bear on the changes were discussed. Methods. Data from the WHO Health for All European Data Base were used to determine changes in life expectancy and selected economic factors for CEE and NIS countries. RESULTS: Changes in life expectancy varied by gender in both CEE and the NIS, with the difference increasing for the two groups during the period with the largest increase occurring in the NIS. Both male and female life expectancy declined, with male life expectancy dropping at a more rapid rate. In 1994, the year in which most, but not all countries, reached a low point, life expectancy for males had declined below 60 years for two countries. CONCLUSIONS: The most striking point about the decline in life expectancies was the short period in which the declines occurred, especially in the NIS. It is not possible to determine the exact cause for the changes, but there are likely multiple reasons. It is not completely clear why the decline in life expectancy was greater for males, although the linkage between economic and behavioral and lifestyle factors appear to have some association. Further research is necessary to determine why effects by gender vary so greatly and whether the negative outcomes are a short-term anomaly or will persist. (+info)
Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia.
In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia contribute financially, technically, or in kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: to create an enabling environment for STD prevention and control, and to strengthen the local capacity for STD prevention and care engage in a continuous exchange of information, collaborative partnerships, and coordination of activities at regional as well as country level through the TF/STD and in-country interagency working groups, respectively concur with the priority areas for international support consisting of advocacy and policy, STD drugs, condoms, educational materials, training, applied research, and surveillance meet twice a year to review implementation progress and the need for additional assistance as advocates of TF/STD, call on partners and other organisations to join in this important new initiative. (+info)
Recent declines in reported syphilis rates in eastern Europe and central Asia: are the epidemics over?
BACKGROUND: Since the early 1990s, major syphilis epidemics have occurred in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. The new and rapidly changing societal and economic conditions in these countries challenge their traditional approaches to the control of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Nevertheless, following a steady increase until 1997, reported syphilis incidence has declined during the past 3 years in most parts of the region. We examine these trends against a background of ongoing changes in service delivery, care seeking behaviour, and case finding practices. METHODS: National syphilis surveillance data reported to the WHO Regional Office for Europe were compiled and analysed, and supplemented with information presented at recent expert meetings and with results from ongoing research. RESULTS: Since 1997, reported syphilis incidence either stabilised or declined in many locations in the NIS, but further increased in others, especially in rural areas. Congenital syphilis continued to increase in all countries, except Latvia. The proportion of self presenting cases versus cases detected through screening declined, and so did notifications of early compared with late forms of syphilis. Patients increasingly seek care in the private formal and informal healthcare sectors which hardly participate in case reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Recent declines in syphilis notifications in the NIS are at least partially a reflection of a reduced intensity of active case finding and of changes in reporting completeness because of a shift in service utilisation from the public to the private/informal sectors. Syphilis rates are still high, indicating that both public and private sectors have to respond more efficiently to the needs of many people at risk of STI. The collection of serial STI prevalence data is recommended to be able to validate trends in notifications. (+info)
Distribution and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia.
In this study, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia were characterized in order to determine virus subtype distribution. TBE viruses were isolated from ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) collected in the far-eastern (Khabarovsk and Vladivostok) and Siberian (Irkutsk) regions of Russia in 1999. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates formed distinct clusters of far-eastern and Siberian subtypes. There was also a minor difference in antigenicity between the Irkutsk isolates and other TBE virus strains, as demonstrated by the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies. Amino acid alignments of the E gene showed that the Irkutsk isolates had a single amino acid change at position 234 (Q or H); this amino acid position is considered to be a 'signature' of Siberian subtype TBE viruses. Strains isolated in Irkutsk also exhibited equivalent or somewhat higher virulence in mice compared with far-eastern TBE virus isolates. All viruses isolated in this study (i.e. far-east Asian and Siberian isolates) have 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of almost the same length, which contrasts with the various sizes of 3'NCRs of other TBE viruses strains reported previously. The data presented in this study show that the 3'NCR is uniform among TBE viruses isolated from Siberia and far-eastern Asia and that the 3'NCR is essential for TBE virus growth in tick and/or rodent host cells. (+info)
Anemia prevention and control in four central Asian republics and Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan and the central Asian republics of Uzbekistan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have developed anemia prevention and control (APC) policies based on multiple interventions, including education and promotion, oral supplementation of high risk groups and fortification of wheat flour with iron and other micronutrients. These national strategies are aimed at reducing the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among young children and women of child-bearing age. Strategy development has been assisted by funding and technical assistance from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with additional technical support from the International Nutrition Foundation, the United Nations University and various national institutions. These countries have been among the most advanced in adopting national strategies that include multiple interventions in an overall package, and national interest in APC remains high. However, reviews of APC activities conducted in 2001 suggests the need for modification and enhancement of current efforts and for a shift to national-level actions if these countries are to progress toward current and future goals. Increased commitment and determination, by both national groups and international organizations, are required to achieve and sustain improvement in micronutrient nutrition. (+info)
High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India.
Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogrops, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India. (+info)
New sesquiterpenes from Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korovin. VI. Isolation and identification of three new dihydrofuro[2,3-b]chromones.
Three novel 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoid derivatives, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2S*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4,8-dimethyl-3(E),7-nonadienyl]-furo[2, 3-b]chromone, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2S*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-2-furyl)-3(E),7-pe ntenyl]-furo[2,3-b]chromone, and 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2R*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-2-furyl)-3(E),7-pe ntenyl]-furo[2,3-b]chromone, were isolated from the roots of Ferula ferulaeoides. The structures were established by comprehensive spectral analysis. The biosynthetic pathway leading to these 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoids is proposed based on their structures. (+info)
The gender gap in primary health care resource utilization in Central Asia.
There is a large gender gap in life expectancy in some countries of the former Soviet Union. Life expectancy of males is as much as 13 years less than that of females, and a significant portion of the excess male mortality is caused by cardiovascular disease. Although effective primary health care is necessary to manage cardiovascular disease and reduce acute episodes and mortality, the primary health care system is under-utilized by adult males in the region. This study combines disaggregated utilization data with cost data to analyze patterns of per capita primary care resource consumption in urban and rural regions of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The results show that both in absolute and per capita terms, the principal users of primary health are women of reproductive age and children under five. Based on a combination of utilization and cost of services, women of reproductive age consume approximately 1.5 times the average per capita primary health care resources, while men in the same age group consume approximately one-half of the average. Children under five consume about three to five times the average per capita primary care resources. Based on the results of the study, regional government health purchasers worked together with providers to develop a new per capita payment system with age/sex adjustments and incentives for outreach to bring adult men into the primary care system. (+info)