A prospective controlled trial of the efficacy of isopropyl alcohol wipes before venesection in surgical patients.
It has previously been suggested that skin preparation before venesection with antiseptic agents is unnecessary. However thousands of doctors and medical students continue to use isopropyl alcohol (IPA) swabs for venesection, at an estimated cost of 10,000 P per annum in a 500 bed hospital. An audit of IPA swab use among junior doctors and medical students at our institution was undertaken; 76% of doctors and 100% of medical students routinely prepared the skin with alcohol before venesection and only one used the swabs correctly. A randomised single-blind controlled trial was conducted of IPA versus no IPA skin preparation before venesection. There were 194 patients in the study, 93 in the IPA group and 101 controls. There was no statistical difference with respect to complications at the venepuncture site between the two groups. (+info)
Deterioration of theatre discipline during total joint replacement--have theatre protocols been abandoned?
The results of the Medical Research Council trial by Lidwell et al. in 1982 [Lidwell OM, Lowbury EJ, Whyte W et al. Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomised study. BMJ 1982; 285: 10-4] showed a decrease in infection rates following joint replacements carried out in ultraclean air theatres. Since then, the orthopaedic community in the UK has relied to a large extent on laminar airflow theatres to control infection following arthroplasty. At the same time, there has been a decline in the emphasis on basic principles and practices of antisepsis based on scientific evidence. We undertook this audit to establish whether published recommendations on theatre discipline were being followed in operating theatres where joint replacements are carried out, in England, Scotland and Wales. Our results show that with improvement in technology involved in clean air theatres, and availability in practice, slackness has crept into theatre protocol. In view of the fact that infection following arthroplasty has not been eliminated or indeed in some cases, maintained at the levels of the Medical Research Council study, we feel that traditional practices should be reintroduced. This study shows that there is pressing need for a set of recommendations on theatre practice for all staff in operating theatres that carry out joint replacements. (+info)
Intravenous feeding in a gastroenterological unit: a prospective study of infective complications.
We have assessed the bacteriological safety of a system of intravenous feeding by culturing catheters on removal, swabs taken from the catheter's skin entry sites, and samples of infusion fluid. Among 38 treatment periods using 51 catheters over 1551 patient days, septicaemia due to Staphylococcus aureus was observed in one treatment period and bacteraemias due to Staphylococcus albus and Diphtheroid species in two others. The Staph. aureus and the diphtheroids probably gained access via the skin entry site along the outside of the catheter. The origin of the Staph. albus was uncertain. Parenteral nutrition over extended periods can be a safe procedure if aseptic precautions are taken. The importance of the catheter's skin entry site as a source of contaiminating organisms is emphasised. (+info)
The value of suction drainage fluid culture during aseptic and septic orthopedic surgery: a prospective study of 901 patients.
There are no guidelines on the value of suction drainage fluid culture (SDC), and it is difficult to determine whether the organisms cultured from suction drainage fluid samples are pathogenic or simply contaminants. We performed 2989 cultures of suction drainage fluid samples obtained, during a 1-year period, from 901 patients who underwent aseptic or septic orthopedic surgery (946 operations). The culture results were analyzed to evaluate their ability to detect postoperative infection after aseptic operations or to detect either a persistent or new episode of sepsis in patients known to have infection. For aseptic operations, the sensitivity of SDC was 25%, the specificity was 99%, the positive predictive value was 25%, and the negative predictive value was 99%. For septic operations, the sensitivity of SDC was 81%, the specificity was 96%, the positive predictive value was 87%, and the negative predictive value was 94%. We conclude that, for aseptic orthopedic surgery, SDC is not useful in detecting postoperative infection. However, for septic orthopedic surgery, it is of clinical importance. (+info)
Does sterile or nonsterile technique make a difference in wounds healing by secondary intention?
After observing inconsistencies in care of acute surgical wounds healing by secondary intention and reviewing the potential cost savings of implementing clean dressing change technique policies, surgical nurses at a university-based medical center monitored supply usage and infection rates of these wounds using a nonexperimental, longitudinal study design. Staff from two acute care surgical units provided data for 3 months before and 3 months after standardization of wound care to a clean wound care technique. All adult patients requiring dressing changes three times per day with normal saline moistened gauze of their open surgical wound(s) participated in the study. Before changing the wound care procedures, nine (9) of 1,070 (0.84%) admissions to the two surgical units had a surgical site infection. During the 3 months following implementation of clean wound care protocols, eight (8) surgical site infections were documented in 963 admissions (rate.83%). Dressing supply costs were $380 less. In this study, using nonsterile wound care procedures for wounds healing by secondary intention did not negatively impact infection rates and saved supply costs. (+info)
Syringe access for the prevention of blood borne infections among injection drug users.
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. DISCUSSION: Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at syringe exchange programs or furnished by authorized agencies. Each of these avenues has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, legal access through all means is the most likely way to promote the use of sterile syringes. SUMMARY: By assisting illicit drug injectors to obtain sterile syringes the primary care provider is able to reduce the incidence of blood borne infections, and educate patients about safe syringe disposal. The provider is also able to initiate discussion about drug use in a nonjudgmental manner and to offer care to patients who are not yet ready to consider drug treatment. (+info)
Bronchoscopy with the Vision Sciences BF100 disposable-sheath device: French experience after 328 procedures.
BACKGROUND: In spite of adhesion to recommended disinfection procedures, the transmission of infections by bronchoscopes is a permanent problem. OBJECTIVE: The new device may prevent nosocomial infections because it consists of two parts: a specific bronchoscope Vision Sciences BF100 and a single-use protective sheath for each procedure. The aim of this paper is to report our practice and the difficulties encountered when using this system. METHODS: We report our experience from 1997 to 2002 after 328 elective and emergency endoscopic procedures with the BF100 device. In a retrospective study, we describe the population and the incidents during procedure. We discuss the impact of the use of BF100 on the cost of bronchoscopies. RESULTS: The major constraint is the care required in assembling the optical device and disposable sheath. The intrinsic qualities of the optics are confirmed; any sample may be taken although image quality and suction capacity are inferior to videoscopes. Maneuverability is inferior to videoscopes, but improves with a short experience. In addition, this device is expensive. CONCLUSIONS: The technical performances of the BF100 device are inferior to those of videoscopes but the concept of sterile single-use sheaths is able to prevent the nosocomial infections related to bronchoscopes. Because of the cost, examination with the BF100 should be reserved to patients with proved or suspected infection (multiresistant bacteria, tuberculosis, hepatitis C and B virus, HIV, prions) and immunosuppression (hematologic diseases). (+info)
Aseptic technology of vitrification of human pronuclear oocytes using open-pulled straws.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the viability of human pronuclear oocytes subjected to vitrification using cooling by direct submerging of open-pulled straws in liquid nitrogen versus vitrification by cooling of open-pulled straws located inside a closed 0.5 ml straw (aseptic system). METHODS: Two- and three-pronuclei stage oocytes (n=114) were cryopreserved in super-open-pulled straws by vitrification in 20% ethylene glycol +20% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) + osmotic active and neutral non-permeable cryoprotectants with a four-step exposure in 20, 33, 50 and 100% vitrification solution for 2, 1 and 1 min, and 30-50 s, respectively at room temperature, and plunging into liquid nitrogen. Oocytes of group 1 (n=42) were rapidly cooled at a speed of 20,000 degrees C/min by direct plunging of open-pulled straws into liquid nitrogen. Oocytes of group 2 (n=44) were first located in 0.5 ml straws, which were closed at both sides by metal balls, and then plunged into liquid nitrogen. This method resulted in a cooling speed of 200 degrees C/min. For both groups, oocytes were thawed rapidly at a speed of 20 000 degrees C/min using an identical protocol. Oocytes subsequently were expelled into a graded series of sucrose solutions (1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.12 mol/l) at 2.5 min intervals. RESULTS: Oocyte development up to expanded blastocyst stage after in vitro culture was 15% in group 1, 14% in group 2 and 29% in an untreated control group. CONCLUSION: The deposition of human pronuclear oocytes in open-pulled straws which are placed inside a hermetically closed container guarantees a complete isolation of oocytes from liquid nitrogen and avoids potential contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. The combination of direct plunging of this container into liquid nitrogen and rapid warming makes this process as efficient as conventional vitrification. (+info)