The cat lung strip as an in vitro preparation of peripheral airways: a comparison of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, autacoids and anaphylactic challenge on the lung strip and trachea.
1 A new in vitro preparation, the isolated lung strip of the cat, is described for investigating the direct effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lung. The preparation comprises a thin strip of lung parenchyma which can be mounted in a conventional organ bath for isometric tension recording. Its pharmacological responses have been characterized and compared with the isolated tracheal preparation of the cat. 2 The lung strip exhibited an intrinsic tone which was relaxed by catecholamines, aminophylline and flufenamate. It was contracted strongly by histamine, prostaglandin F2alpha, acetylcholine, compound 48/80, potassium depolarizing solution and alternating current field stimulation. In contrast, the cat trachea was unresponsive to histamine and prostaglandin F2alpha and did not exhibit an intrinsic tone. 3 (-)-Isoprenaline and (-)-adrenaline were much more potent in relaxing the lung strip than the trachea. The potency order of relaxation responses to isoprenaline, adrenaline and (+/-)-noradrenaline in the lung strip was isoprenaline greater than adrenaline greater than noradrenaline but in the trachea was isoprenaline greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline. 4 beta2-Adrenoceptor selective agonists salbutamol and terbutaline were more potent in the lung strip than the trachea, suggesting beta2-adrenoceptors predominated in the lung strip. Propranolol was equipotent in inhibiting isoprenaline relexations of the lung strip and trachea, whereas practolol was much less effective in inhibiting lung strip than trachea, further supporting a predominance of beta2-adrenoceptors in lung strip and beta1-adrenoceptors in trachea. 5 Strong Schultz-Dale type contractions were elicited in both lung strips and trachea by Ascaris lumbricoides antigen in actively sensitized cats. The initial phase of the contractile response of the lung strip following challenge was shown to be due to histamine release and was absent in the trachea. The delayed phase of the contraction which took several minutes to develop in both the mepyramine-treated lung strip and trachea was not due to prostaglandins E1, F2alpha or bradykinin, the probable mediator being slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A). 6 It is concluded that the isolated lung strip of the cat is useful as an in vitro model for investigating the effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lungs. (+info)
Transient expression of DNA and RNA in parasitic helminths by using particle bombardment.
Parasitic helminths (worms belonging to several metazoan phyla) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in humans. They are an important veterinary problem, and they result in significant economic losses in animal grazing and agriculture. Experimental studies on parasitic helminths have been limited by a lack of parasite cell lines and methods for molecular genetic analyses. We evaluated particle bombardment (biolistics) as a strategy to introduce and express nucleic acids in these multicellular parasites. By using embryos of the parasitic nematode Ascaris as a model, we developed methods to introduce and express both DNA and RNA during several stages of Ascaris embryogenesis. Biolistic transfection will facilitate experimental strategies in Ascaris embryos complementing other biochemical tools available (e.g., in vitro whole-cell embryo extracts for transcription, RNA processing, and translation). Transfection experiments with adult schistosomes further suggest that the biolistic strategy should be applicable to a variety of other parasitic helminths. The development of these methods provides molecular genetic tools to study gene expression and the biology of a variety of types and developmental stages of important helminth parasites. (+info)
NMR solution structure of Apis mellifera chymotrypsin/cathepsin G inhibitor-1 (AMCI-1): structural similarity with Ascaris protease inhibitors.
The three-dimensional structure of the 56 residue polypeptide Apis mellifera chymotrypsin/cathepsin G inhibitor 1 (AMCI-1) isolated from honey bee hemolymph was calculated based on 730 experimental NMR restraints. It consists of two approximately perpendicular beta-sheets, several turns, and a long exposed loop that includes the protease binding site. The lack of extensive secondary structure features or hydrophobic core is compensated by the presence of five disulfide bridges that stabilize both the protein scaffold and the binding loop segment. A detailed analysis of the protease binding loop conformation reveals that it is similar to those found in other canonical serine protease inhibitors. The AMCI-1 structure exhibits a common fold with a novel family of inhibitors from the intestinal parasitic worm Ascaris suum. The pH-induced conformational changes in the binding loop region observed in the Ascaris inhibitor ATI are absent in AMCI-1. Similar binding site sequences and structures strongly suggest that the lack of the conformational change can be attributed to a Glu-->Gln substitution at the P1' position in AMCI-1, compared to ATI. Analysis of amide proton temperature coefficients shows very good correlation with the presence of hydrogen bond donors in the calculated AMCI-1 structure. (+info)
Some risk factors of Ascaris and Trichuris infection in Malaysian aborigine (Orang Asli) children.
A study on risk factors of soil-transmitted helminths was conducted in a highly endemic area. In all 205 children (95 boys and 110 girls) participated in this study. The overall prevalences of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection were 62.5%, 91.7% and 28.8% respectively. Only 22.4% of the children had a single infection either by Ascaris or Trichuris; 69.3% had mixed infection and the most prevalent of mixed infection was a combination of Ascaris and Trichuris. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that low level mother's education was a risk factor for moderate and severe infection of Ascaris and age < or = 6-year-old was a protective factor. In Trichuris infection logistic regression analysis confirmed that usage of well-water and age < or = 6-year-old were the risk factors. Logistic regression analysis on worm scores confirmed that usage of well-water and non-usage of toilets were the risk factors from getting severe worm scores and age < or = 6-year-old was a protective factor. Our finding suggest that socio-behavioural (related to mother's education), demographic (children age) and environmental-factors (usage of well-water and non-usage of toilets) are the elements to be considered in the design of long term soil-transmitted helminths (STH) control in an endemic areas. (+info)
Jejunal mucosa in marasmic children. Clinical, pathological, and fine structural evaluation of the effect of protein-energy malnutrition and environmental contamination.
Seven children suffering from marasmus were investigated clinically, biochemically and morphologically. The fine structure of the jejunal mucosa obtained by peroral biopsy was evaluated. The mucosal changes noted agree with the only other ultrastructural study reported by Brunser et al. (8) and add information on three additional features: an increase in theliolymphocytes, excessive epithelial cell extrusion and abnormalities in the appearances of the mucosal plasma cells, suggesting possible local deficiency in immune function. (+info)
The development of Ascaris suum in calves.
To determine the development of Ascaris suum after a primary and a secondary infection, 18 calves were inoculated with 2,000,000 infective eggs and examined from 18 hours to 13 days postinfection. At 18 hours larvae were recovered from the wall of the abomasum, duodenum and jejunum. They were found in small intestine lymph nodes on the third day, in the liver at five days and were most abundant in the lungs on days 7 and 9. The pattern of recovery of larvae from the lung between days 5 and 13 postinfection was similar after a primary or a secondary infection. Slower growth of larvae following a secondary infection was the only evidence of resistance to A. suum. There were no pathological changes observed in the alimentary canal. White foci were found on the surface of the liver as early as the third day. The rapid decline in the number of A. suum in the lungs after the ninth day was considered to be related to immobilization or death of larvae soon after the reaction to them commences. (+info)
Wistar strain rats as the model for IgE antibody experiments.
The amount of plasma IgE antibody formed and its change over time were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD), Donryu, and Wistar strain rats. IgE antibody formation was initiated by injecting a mixture of 2,4-dinitrophenylated ascaris extract (DNP-As) as antigen and killed Bordetella pertussis as adjuvant into the paws of the animals. The amount of IgE antibody formed was low on day 10 in both male and female SD (40-80 ng/ml) and Donryu (20-40 ng/ml) strain rats, and an increase in the amount was observed on day 20. The peak value of IgE antibody was observed day 10 in Wistar strain rats and was 130 and 200 ng/ml in the male and female rats, respectively. These results suggest that Wistar strain rats produce the most IgE antibody when DNP-As is used as antigen and they can serve as a model for allergic diseases. (+info)
The Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F is a protease inhibitor that is toxic upon ectopic expression.
Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid proteins stimulate sperm storage and egg laying in the mated female but also cause a reduction in her life span. We report here that of eight Drosophila seminal fluid proteins (Acps) and one non-Acp tested, only Acp62F is toxic when ectopically expressed. Toxicity to preadult male or female Drosophila occurs upon one exposure, whereas multiple exposures are needed for toxicity to adult female flies. Of the Acp62F received by females during mating, approximately 10% enters the circulatory system while approximately 90% remains in the reproductive tract. We show that in the reproductive tract, Acp62F localizes to the lumen of the uterus and the female's sperm storage organs. Analysis of Acp62F's sequence, and biochemical assays, reveals that it encodes a trypsin inhibitor with sequence and structural similarities to extracellular serine protease inhibitors from the nematode Ascaris. In light of previous results demonstrating entry of Acp62F into the mated female's hemolymph, we propose that Acp62F is a candidate for a molecule to contribute to the Acp-dependent decrease in female life span. We propose that Acp62F's protease inhibitor activity exerts positive protective functions in the mated female's reproductive tract but that entry of a small amount of this protein into the female's hemolymph could contribute to the cost of mating. (+info)