Interaction between seasonal density-dependence structures and length of the seasons explain the geographical structure of the dynamics of voles in Hokkaido: an example of seasonal forcing.
(57/710)The grey-sided vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus) is distributed over the entire island of Hokkaido, Japan, across which it exhibits multi-annual density cycles in only parts of the island (the north-eastern part); in the remaining part of the island, only seasonal density changes occur. Using annual sampling of 189 grey-sided vole populations, we deduced the geographical structure in their second-order density dependence. Building upon our earlier suggestion, we deduce the seasonal density-dependent structure for these populations. Strong direct and delayed density dependence is found to occur during winter, whereas no density dependence is seen during the summer period. The direct density dependence during winter may be seen as a result of food being limited during that season: the delayed density dependence during the winter is consistent with vole-specialized predators (e.g. the least weasel) responding to vole densities so as to have a negative effect on the net growth rate of voles in the following year. We conclude that the observed geographical structure of the population dynamics may be properly seen as a result of the length of the summer in interaction with the differential seasonal density-dependent structure. Altogether, this indicates that the geographical pattern in multi-annual density dynamics in the grey-sided vole may be a result of seasonal forcing. (+info)
Multiple glacial refugia in the North American Arctic: inference from phylogeography of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).
(58/710)Cryptic northern refugia beyond the ice limit of the Pleistocene glaciations may have had significant influence on the current pattern of biodiversity in Arctic regions. In order to evaluate whether northern glacial refugia existed in the Canadian Arctic, we examined mitochondrial DNA phylogeography in the northernmost species of rodents, the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) sampled across its range of distribution in the North American Arctic and Greenland. The division of the collared lemming into the Canadian Arctic and eastern Beringia phylogroups does not support postglacial colonization of the North American Arctic from a single eastern Beringia refugium. Rather, the phylogeographical structure and sparse fossil records indicate that, during the last glaciation, some biologically significant refugia and important sources of postglacial colonization were located to the northwest of the main ice sheet in the Canadian Arctic. (+info)
Intestinal fibrovascular nodules caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection in Calomys callosus Rengger, 1830 (Rodentia: Cricetidae): a model of concomitant fibrosis and angiogenesis.
(59/710)Human schistosomiasis develops extensive and dense fibrosis in portal space, together with congested new blood vessels. This study demonstrates that Calomys callosus infected with Schistosoma mansoni also develops fibrovascular lesions, which are found in intestinal subserosa. Animals were percutaneously infected with 70 cercariae and necropsied at 42, 45, 55, 80, 90 and 160 days after infection. Intestinal sections were stained for brightfield, polarization microscopy, confocal laser scanning, transmission and scanning electron microscopies. Immunohistological analysis was also performed and some nodules were aseptically collected for cell culture. Numerous intestinal nodules, appearing from 55 up to 160 days after infection, were localized at the interface between external muscular layer and intestinal serosa, consisting of fibrovascular tissue forming a shell about central granuloma(s). Intranodular new vessels were derived from the vasculature of the external vascular layer and were positive for laminin, chondroitin-sulfate, smooth muscle alpha-actin and FVIII-RA. Fibroblastic cells and extracellular matrix components (collagens I, III and VI, fibronectin and tenascin) comprised the stroma. Intermixed with the fibroblasts and vessels there were variable number of eosinophils, macrophages and haemorrhagic foci. In conclusion, the nodules constitute an excellent and accessible model to study fibrogenesis and angiogenesis, dependent on S. mansoni eggs. The fibrogenic activity is fibroblastic and not myofibroblastic-dependent. The angiogenesis is so prominent that causes haemorrhagic ascites. (+info)
Puumala hantavirus infection in humans and in the reservoir host, Ardennes region, France.
(60/710)We compared the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica cases, over a multi-annual population cycle, in northeastern France with the hantavirus serology for bank voles captured in the same area. We discuss hypotheses to explain the pattern of infection in both humans and rodents and their synchrony. (+info)
Seasonal dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a rodent-tick (Ixodes trianguliceps) system, United Kingdom.
(61/710)We investigated the reservoir role of European wild rodents for Anaplasma phagocytophila using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of blood collected from individually tagged rodents captured monthly over 2 years. The only tick species observed in the woodland study site was Ixodes trianguliceps, and ruminant reservoir hosts were not known to occur. A. phagocytophila infections were detected in both bank voles and wood mice but were restricted to periods of peak nymphal and adult tick activity. Most PCR-positive rodents were positive only once, suggesting that rodent infections are generally short-lived and that ticks rather than rodents may maintain the infection over winter. Bank voles were more likely to be PCR positive than wood mice, possibly because detectable infections are longer lived in bank voles. This study confirms that woodland rodents can maintain A. phagocytophila in Great Britain in the absence of other reservoir hosts and suggests that I. trianguliceps is a competent vector. (+info)
The wood mouse is a natural host for Murid herpesvirus 4.
(62/710)Infection of laboratory mice by the Murid herpesvirus 4 (MHV-4) is a much studied model system for gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. Little, however, is known about its natural host range, epidemiology and pathogenesis outside the laboratory. We have studied MHV-4 infection in free-living murids in the UK. Using a combination of serology and PCR analysis, we found that MHV-4 was endemic in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) but not in two species of voles (Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis). The sites of detection of viral DNA were the lungs and, less commonly, the spleen, emphasizing the importance of the former in virus persistence during natural infection and confirming similar data in laboratory mice. (+info)
Diving experience and the aerobic dive capacity of muskrats: does training produce a better diver?
(63/710)We tested the hypothesis that the body oxygen stores, aerobic dive limit (ADL) and dive performance of muskrats can be enhanced by dive-conditioning in a laboratory setting. We compared several key variables in 12 muskrats trained to swim a 16 m underwater course to a feeding station ('divers') with those of 12 animals precluded from diving but required to travel identical distances in water to feed ('surface swimmers'). Acclimated muskrats assigned to each group were trained concurrently over a 9-11 week period. We observed significant gains in the haematocrit (P=0.0005) and blood haemoglobin concentration (P=0.015) of 'divers', but not 'surface swimmers'. The post-training blood O(2) store calculated for 'divers' (22.9 ml O(2) kg(-1)) was nearly 26% higher than that (18.2 ml O(2) kg(-1)) derived for 'surface swimmers' (P=0.03). Dive-conditioning had no apparent effect on lung volume, whole blood and plasma volumes, nor on the glycogen level and buffering capacity of skeletal muscles. Cardiac and skeletal muscle myoglobin levels were also similar in both test groups following training. The mean total body oxygen store of 'divers' (37.8ml O(2) STPD kg(-1)) was 13.5% higher (P=0.037) than for 'surface swimmers' (33.3 ml O(2) STPD kg(-1)), an increase attributed entirely to the gain in blood O(2) storage capacity of the former group. However, owing to a slightly higher estimate of diving metabolic rate in dive-conditioned animals, the calculated ADL for this group (61.3 s) was indistinguishable from that of 'surface swimmers' (61.8 s). Few differences were observed in the post-training dive behaviour of 'surface swimmers' and 'divers', a finding consistent with the strong similarity in their calculated aerobic dive capacities. (+info)
Spatio-temporal dynamics of the grey-sided vole in Hokkaido: identifying coupling using state-based Markov-chain modelling.
(64/710)Explaining synchronization of cyclical or fluctuating populations over geographical regions presents ecologists with novel analytical challenges. We have developed a method to measure synchrony within spatial-temporal datasets of population densities applicable to both periodic and irregularly fluctuating populations. The dynamics of each constituent population is represented by a discrete Markov model. The state of a population trajectory at each time-point is classified as one of 'increase', 'decrease', 'peak' or 'trough'. The set of populations at any time-point is characterized by the frequency distribution of these different states, and the time-evolution of this frequency distribution used to test the hypothesis that the dynamics of each population proceeds independently of the others. The analysis identifies years in which population coupling results in synchronous states and onto which states the system converges, and identifies those years in which synchrony remains high but is accounted for by coupling observed in previous years. It also enables identification of which pairs of sites show the highest levels of coupling. Applying these methods to populations of the grey-sided vole on Hokkaido reveals them to be fluctuating in greater synchrony than would be expected from independent dynamics, and that this level of synchrony is maintained through intermittent coupling acting in ca. 1 year in four or five. High synchrony occurs between sites with similar vegetation and of similar altitude indicating that coupling may be mediated through shared environmental stimuli. When coupling is indicated, convergence is equally likely to occur on a peak state as a trough, indicating that synchronization may be brought about by the response of populations to a combination of different stimuli rather than by the action of any single process. (+info)