Cutting edge: Fc receptor type I for IgG on macrophages and complement mediate the inflammatory response in immune complex peritonitis.
The contributions of Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG (FcgammaRs) and complement to immune complex (IC)-mediated peritonitis were evaluated in BALB/c-, C57BL/6-, FcRgamma chain-, and FcR type III for IgG (FcgammaRIII)-deficient mice, backcrossed to the C57BL/6 background. In BALB/c mice, but not in C57BL/6 mice, neutrophil migration was markedly attenuated after complement depletion. In mice lacking FcRgamma chain, neutrophil migration was abolished, whereas it was unaffected in FcgammaRIII-deficient mice. Huge amounts of TNF-alpha (TNF) were found in the peritoneal exudate of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice but were absent in mice lacking FcRgamma chain or FcgammaRIII. Surprisingly, a functional inhibition of TNF in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice had no effect on neutrophil infiltration. These data provide evidence that in IC peritonitis, the activation of FcR type I for IgG on peritoneal macrophages and the activation of the complement cascade, but not the interaction of ICs with FcgammaRIII and the subsequent release of TNF, initiate the inflammatory response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. (+info
Selection of a C5a receptor antagonist from phage libraries attenuating the inflammatory response in immune complex disease and ischemia/reperfusion injury.
A C5a-receptor antagonist was selected from human C5a phage display libraries in which the C terminus of des-Arg74-hC5a was mutated. The selected molecule is a competitive C5a receptor antagonist in vitro and in vivo. Signal transduction is interrupted at the level of G-protein activation. In addition, the antagonist does not cause any C5a receptor phosphorylation. Proinflammatory properties such as chemotaxis or lysosomal enzyme release of differentiated U937 cells, as well as C5a-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of murine peritoneal macrophages, are inhibited. The in vivo efficacy was evaluated in three different animal models of immune complex diseases in mice, i.e., the reverse passive Arthus reaction in the peritoneum, skin, and lung. The i.v. application of the C5a receptor antagonist abrogated polymorphonuclear neutrophil accumulation in peritoneum and markedly attenuated polymorphonuclear neutrophil migration into the skin and the lung. In a model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, i.v. administration of the C5a receptor antagonist decreased local and remote tissue injury: bowel wall edema and hemorrhage as well as pulmonary microvascular dysfunction. These data give evidence that C5a is an important mediator triggering the inflammatory sequelae seen in immune complex diseases and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The selected C5a receptor antagonist may prove useful to attenuate the inflammatory response in these disorders. (+info
IL-1 and TNF receptor-deficient mice show decreased inflammation in an immune complex model of uveitis.
PURPOSE: To determine the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the induction of uveitis by a reverse passive Arthus reaction (RPAR). METHODS: Human serum albumin (HSA) antiserum was injected into the vitreous of "knockout" or "double knockout" mice genetically deficient in IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI-/-), TNF receptors p55 and p75 (TNFR p55-/-/p75-/-), IL-1RI and TNFR p55 (IL-1RI-/-/TNFR p55-/-), and controls. Twenty-four hours later, animals were challenged with intravenous HSA. Eyes were enucleated 4 hours after antigen challenge, and inflammation was quantitated by counting cells on histologic sections. Interleukin-6 in aqueous humor was measured with a B9 cell bioassay. The distribution of immune complexes in eyes was observed by immunohistochemical staining for IgG and complement component C3. RESULTS: Four hours after antigen challenge, immune complexes were localized at the ciliary body and iris of receptor-deficient mice. A transient uveitis was most severe at this time. A significant reduction in the median number of infiltrating cells was found in TNFR p55-/-/p75-/- mice (4.8, n = 15), compared with controls (14.2, n = 20, P < 0.05). The median number of infiltrating cells was significantly reduced in IL-1RI-/- mice (knockout 2.6, n = 11; controls 7.4, n = 8, P < 0.005). Interleukin-1RI-/-/TNFR p55-/- mice had a strong reduction in infiltrating cells (knockout 1.6, n = 11; controls 27.3, n = 12, P = 0.002). Interleukin-6 activity in aqueous humor was reduced in IL-1RI-/-/TNFR p55-/- mice (P = 0.03) but not in TNFR p55-/-/p75-/- (P = 0.40) mice. Most IL-1RI-/-mice had no detectable aqueous humor IL-6, but this group was not statistically different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to endotoxin-induced uveitis, both IL-1 and TNF appear to have critical roles in RPAR uveitis. When receptors for these cytokines were deleted, the severity of immune complex-induced uveitis was profoundly reduced. (+info
The Arthus reaction in rodents: species-specific requirement of complement.
We induced reverse passive Arthus (RPA) reactions in the skin of rodents and found that the contribution of complement to immune complex-mediated inflammation is species specific. Complement was found to be necessary in rats and guinea pigs but not in C57BL/6J mice. In rats, within 4 h after initiation of an RPA reaction, serum alternative pathway hemolytic titers decreased significantly below basal levels, whereas classical pathway titers were unchanged. Thus the dermal reaction proceeds coincident with systemic activation of complement. The serine protease inhibitor BCX 1470, which blocks the esterolytic and hemolytic activities of the complement enzymes Cls and factor D in vitro, also blocked development of RPA-induced edema in the rat. These data support the proposal that complement-mediated processes are of major importance in the Arthus reaction in rats and guinea pigs, and suggest that BCX 1470 will be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent in diseases where complement activation is known to be detrimental. (+info
A codominant role of Fc gamma RI/III and C5aR in the reverse Arthus reaction.
Recent attempts to specify the relative contribution of FcR and complement in various experimental systems of immune complex disease have led to opposing conclusions. As concluded in IgG FcRgamma-/- mice, manifestation of disease is almost exclusively determined by FcgammaR on effector cells, arguing for a minor role of complement. In contrast, data obtained with C5aR-/- mice suggested that, dependent on the tissue site, complement is more important than FcgammaR. In this paper, we demonstrate that, in response to IgG immune complex formation, FcgammaRI/III- and C5aR-mediated pathways are both necessary and only together are they sufficient to trigger the full expression of inflammation in skin and lung. Moreover, both effector systems are not entirely independent, suggesting an interaction between FcgammaR and C5aR. Therefore, FcgammaR-mediated responses can be integrated through C5aR activation, which may explain why these two receptor pathways have previously been considered to dominate each other. (+info
Contribution of B(2) receptors for bradykinin in arthus reaction-induced plasma extravasation in wild-type or B(2) transgenic knockout mice.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of bradykinin (BK) B(1) and B(2) receptors in a model of type III hypersensitivity, the reverse passive Arthus reaction (RPA), in wild-type mice and transgenic B(2) knockout littermates. BK (10 microg mouse(-1)) or bovine serum albumin (0.5 mg mouse(-1)) induced a sustained Evans blue extravasation for more than 80 min in naive or rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin-treated mice (RPA model), respectively. The response to the two stimuli was prevented by the B(2) receptor antagonist, HOE-140, but not by [Leu(8)]desArg(9)-BK (B(1) receptor antagonist). In contrast to the wild-type littermates, RPA and bradykinin were unable to trigger an increase in plasma extravasation in B(2) knockout mice. Furthermore, endothelin-1 (5 microg mouse(-1)) and a selective NK-1 receptor agonist [Sar(9),Met (O(2))(11)]-SP (20 microg mouse(-1)), triggered a significant increase in peritoneal plasma extravasation in both wild-type and B(2) knockout animals. A pretreatment with indomethacin (200 microg mouse(-1)) significantly reduced the RPA-induced but not the BK-induced increase in Evans blue extravasation. Furthermore, RPA, but not BK, triggered a significant indomethacin-sensitive increase in peritoneal prostaglandin E(2) content. Our results suggest a pivotal role for B(2) receptors in the mechanism of plasma extravasation which occurs during the reverse passive Arthus reaction in the mouse. Moreover, our results suggest an important contribution of prostanoids in the plasma leakage mechanisms triggered by RPA but not by bradykinin. (+info
A new small molecule C5a receptor antagonist inhibits the reverse-passive Arthus reaction and endotoxic shock in rats.
C5a is implicated as a pathogenic factor in a wide range of immunoinflammatory diseases, including sepsis and immune complex disease. Agents that antagonize the effects of C5a could be useful in these diseases. We have developed some novel C5a antagonists and have determined the acute anti-inflammatory properties of a new small molecule C5a receptor antagonist against C5a- and LPS-induced neutrophil adhesion and cytokine expression, as well as against some hallmarks of the reverse Arthus reaction in rats. We found that a single i.v. dose (1 mg/kg) of this antagonist inhibited both C5a- and LPS-induced neutropenia and elevated levels of circulating TNF-alpha, as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration, increased TNF-alpha levels and vascular leakage at the site of immune complex deposition. These results indicate potent anti-inflammatory activities of a new C5a receptor antagonist and provide more evidence for a key early role for C5a in sepsis and the reverse Arthus reaction. The results support a role for antagonists of C5a receptors in the therapeutic intervention of immunoinflammatory disease states such as sepsis and immune complex disease. (+info
Lyn is essential for fcgamma receptor III-mediated systemic anaphylaxis but not for the Arthus reaction.
The Src family kinase Lyn initiates intracellular signal transduction by associating with a variety of immune receptors such as antigen receptor on B cells and high-affinity Fc receptor (FcR) for immunoglobulin Ig(E) (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells. Involvement of Lyn in the IgE-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity is well documented, but the physiological significance of Lyn in IgG-dependent, type III low-affinity FcR for IgG (FcgammaRIII)-mediated responses is largely unknown. In this study, we generated a double-mutant mouse strain deficient in both type II FcR for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) and Lyn to exclude any involvement of inhibitory signaling by FcgammaRIIB, which otherwise downregulates FcgammaRIII-mediated cellular responses. FcgammaRIIB-deficient but Lyn-sufficient mice served as controls. The Lyn deficiency attenuated IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in vivo, and significantly reduced calcium mobilization and degranulation responses of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in vitro. However, we found that either interleukin 4 or tumor necrosis factor alpha release by BMMCs was comparable to that from Lyn-deficient and control mice, and the reverse-passive Arthus reaction was equally induced in both mutant mice, indicating that Lyn is not involved in the onset of the IgG-mediated, FcgammaRIII-dependent late phase responses of mast cells. These findings provide us with insight into distinct signaling mechanisms in mast cells underlying the development of diverse pathologies as well as a therapeutic potential for selective treatment of allergic disorders. (+info